Table 2

Descriptive injury data by intervention, period and age groups for fall injuries related to snow and ice (primary outcome) and for other specified injuries unrelated to snow and ice (negative control outcome)

Group and periodSnow and ice-related fall injuries (ICD-10: W00)Other specified fall injuries unrelated to snow and ice (ICD-10: W01–W18)
No of injury patientsMean incidence per 1000 person-winters (min–max)No of injury patientsMean incidence per 1000 person-winters (min–max)
Control municipalities (all periods)
 Eligible ages49 9632.84 (0–15.95)390 50920.72 (0–39.92)
 Ineligible ages45 9232.67 (0–17.42)158 1878.60 (0–35.01)
Programme municipalities (all periods)
 Eligible ages18 1932.39 (0–11.04)188 32321.65 (4.50–75.97)
 Ineligible ages18 3862.29 (0–11.80)80 9308.72 (0.66–21.61)
Programme municipalities (preperiod)
 Eligible ages13 5832.33 (0–11.04)137 54521.21 (4.5–63.81)
 Ineligible ages13 9102.18 (0–10.53)58 5768.36 (0.66–20.13)
Programme municipalities (postperiod)
 Eligible ages46102.67 (0–10.84)50 77823.55 (8.98–75.97)
 Ineligible ages44762.76 (0–11.80)22 35410.25 (1.73–21.61)
  • Notes: Programme municipalities (n=73) are municipalities that have distributed ice cleats; control municipalities are all other municipalities in the study sample (n=200). All periods reflect the entire study period from the winter of 2001/2002 to the winter of 2018/2019. Preperiod is the period before intervention in programme municipalities and postperiod is the period after intervention in programme municipalities (not applicable for control municipalities). Eligible ages are defined as all ages above the age of eligibility in programme municipalities, and ineligible ages are 1–15 years younger than the age of eligibility. In control municipalities, the eligible ages are defined as 65+ years and ineligible ages as 50–64 years, reflecting the most common age ranges in programme municipalities.

  • ICD-10, International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision.