Table 1

Descriptive statistics of the four intersectional groups, excluded tracts and Baltimore city average (non-fatal shooting rate and selected socioeconomic indicators).

VariableSustained advantage, N=30*Contemporary advantage N=40*Previous advantage N=22*Sustained disadvantage N=57*Excluded tracts† N=49*Baltimore city average N=198*
Non-fatal shooting rate‡481328814
Vacant housing percentage§121620331320
College educated percentage§385418133330
Black residents percentage§562590875562
Median household Income§ ($)70 60177 07841 20330 61757 33453 849
  • *N= Number of census tracts in the group

  • †Excluded tracts did not have HOLC grades assigned to them. Only excluded tracts that contained residential zoning are included in the table.

  • ‡Mean annualised non-fatal shooting rates per 10 000 residents from 2015 to 2019 Baltimore city police department data.

  • §Socioeconomic variables are from 5-year 2019 US Census Bureau American Community Survey.

  • HOLC, Home Owners’ Loan Corporation.