Table 1

Characteristics of the sample in total, among older adults, and by exposure to ice cleat distribution programme

CharacteristicAll ages65+ years
Entire sampleEntire sampleUnexposed to programmeExposed to programmeP value*
Sample size—n63 23417 90615 3992507
Age—mean (SD)52.0 (16.7)71.1 (4.2)71.1 (4.2)71.5 (4.1)<0.001
No postsecondary education—%64.975.976.671.4<0.001
Born in Sweden—%86.388.187.790.3<0.001
Survey wave—%<0.001
Ice cleat users, main†—%29.553.551.962.9<0.001
Ice cleat users, alternative‡—%34.058.457.663.7<0.001
Ice cleat pairs distributed per age-eligible citizen—mean (SD)0.38 (0.22)
  • *P value for group differences in characteristics between exposed and unexposed respondents in the 65+ age group. Based on χ2 tests for categorical variables and t-tests for continuous variables.

  • †Respondents who reported ‘sometimes’, ‘often’ or ‘always’ using ice cleats during icy road conditions were classified as ice cleat users in the waves that used ordinal response scales (2007 and 2010; never or seldom were classified as non-users). Response options to later waves were binary (yes or no).

  • ‡Those who reported seldom using ice cleats were also classified as ice cleat users in this definition.