Table 4

GVRO process details

Cases (n=202)*
n (%)
Petitioner relationship to respondent
 Law enforcement officer195 (96.5)
 Family/household member7 (3.5)
Source of information to petitioner†
 Respondent101 (50.0)
 Family or household member66 (32.7)
 Significant other56 (27.7)
 Bystander/witness45 (22.3)
 Law enforcement (not including petitioner)38 (18.8)
 Medical personnel24 (11.9)
 Friend25 (12.4)
 Coworker13 (6.4)
 Social media13 (6.4)
 School employee11 (5.4)
 Other6 (3.0)
Police action at contact/service†
 Arrest on criminal charges66 (32.7)
 5150 (involuntary psychiatric hold)46 (22.8)
 Transport to hospital45 (22.3)
 Use of force10 (5.0)
 Psychiatric evaluation (on site)5 (2.5)
Order after a hearing
 Issued108 (53.5)
 Sought but not issued20 (9.9)
 Not sought67 (33.2)
Legal representation at hearing (among those with an order after a hearing form, n=104‡)
 Petitioner only55 (52.9)
 Respondent only4 (3.8)
 Petitioner and respondent15 (14.4)
 None28 (26.9)
  • *201 unique respondents; one person had two distinct GVROs. Percentages are calculated with unknown (missing) values in the denominator.

  • †These were coded as (1) if present and otherwise left blank (0), so we cannot distinguish between ‘no’ and ‘unknown’.

  • ‡The order after a hearing form was missing for four cases in which we believe the order after a hearing was granted (based on court minutes and other forms in the file) and for all cases in which it was sought but not granted.

  • GVRO, gun violence restraining order.