Table 3

Respondent risk factors

Cases (n=202)*
n (%)
Prior violence†
Self-directed violence, behaviour11 (5.4)
Self-directed violence, threat/ideation30 (14.9)
Intimate partner violence, behaviour21 (10.4)
Intimate partner violence, threat/ideation12 (5.9)
Other-directed violence (not intimate partner), behaviour14 (6.9)
Other-directed violence (not intimate partner), threat/ideation19 (9.4)
Harming animals2 (1.0)
Health-related risk factors‡
Substance use69 (34.2)
 GVRO-related54 (26.7)
 Background risk32 (15.8)
Mental illness (named diagnosis)40 (19.8)
 GVRO-related25 (12.4)
 Background risk22 (10.9)
Undifferentiated paranoia/psychosis/hallucination22 (10.9)
 GVRO-related20 (9.9)
 Background risk10 (5.0)
Physical health problems18 (8.9)
 GVRO-related6 (3.0)
 Background risk14 (6.9)
Dementia/cognitive impairment3 (1.5)
 GVRO-related2 (1.0)
 Background risk2 (1.0)
Not adhering to prescription medication regime at the time of the GVRO8 (4.0)
Criminal legal system contact
 Prior police contact with arrest/charges43 (21.3)
 Prior police contact without arrest/charges28 (13.9)
 Current restraining/protective orders7 (3.5)
 Prior restraining/protective orders3 (1.5)
Social/structural risk factors‡
Loss/relationship problems, intimate partner46 (22.8)
 GVRO-related42 (20.8)
 Background risk23 (11.4)
Unemployment/employment problems24 (11.9)
 GVRO-related13 (6.4)
 Background risk13 (6.4)
Loss/relationship problems, not intimate partner16 (7.9)
 GVRO-related8 (4.0)
 Background risk11 (5.4)
Social isolation/alienation9 (4.5)
 GVRO-related4 (2.0)
 Background risk6 (3.0)
Housing instability7 (3.5)
 GVRO-related4 (2.0)
 Background risk5 (2.5)
Engagement with hate groups/propaganda6 (3.0)
 GVRO-related4 (2.0)
 Background risk3 (1.5)
  • *201 unique respondents; one person had two distinct GVROs. These risk factors were coded as (1) if present and otherwise left blank (0), so we cannot distinguish between ‘no’ and ‘unknown’.

  • †Prior violence refers to violence that occurred before the GVRO inciting event. Violent behaviours are actions that cause harm or could cause harm, such as cutting or hitting. Violent threats are threats that are communicated to others (eg, verbally, in writing, in pictures). Violent ideations are thoughts about harming others or one’s self.

  • ‡In contrast to GVRO-related risk factors, background risk factors are not directly related to the GVRO inciting event.

  • GVRO, gun violence restraining order.