Table 2

Case definitions for cause of injury in GBD 2017

Child causesICD codesCase definition (fatal)Case definition (non-fatal)
Self-harm ICD9: E950-E959
ICD10: X60-X64.9, X66-X84.9, Y87.0
Deliberate bodily damage inflicted on oneself resulting in deathDeliberate bodily damage inflicted on oneself with or without intent to kill oneself.
Self-harm by firearm ICD9: E955-E955.9
ICD10: X72-X74.9
Deliberate bodily damage inflicted by firearm on oneself resulting in deathDeliberate bodily damage inflicted on oneself by firearm with or without intent to kill oneself.
Self-harm by other specified means ICD9: E950-E954, E956-E958.0, E958.2-E959
ICD10: X60-X64.9, X66-X67.9, X69-X71.9, X75-
X75.9, X77-X84.9, Y87.0
Deliberate bodily damage inflicted on oneself resulting in death by means of:*
  • Self-poisoning

  • Medication overdose

  • Transport incident

  • Falling from height

  • Hanging/strangulation


*(not exhaustive)
Deliberate bodily damage inflicted on oneself with or without intent to kill oneself by means of:*
  • Self-poisoning

  • Medication overdose

  • Transport incident

  • Falling from height

  • Hanging/strangulation


*(not exhaustive)
Poisoning ICD9: E850.3-E858.99, E862-E869.99, E929.2
ICD10: J70.5, X40-X44.9, X47-X49.9, Y10-Y14.9, Y16-Y19.9
Death resulting from accidental exposure to a non-infectious substance which contacts the body or enters into the body via inhalation, ingestion, injection or absorption and causes deranged physiological function of body and/or cellular injury/death.Unintentional exposure to a non-infectious substance which contacts the body or enters into the body via inhalation, ingestion, injection or absorption and causes deranged physiological function of body and/or cellular injury/death.
Poisoning by carbon monoxide (CO) ICD9: E862-E862.99, E868-E869.99
ICD10: J70.5, X47-X47.9
Death from exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) as identified based on carboxyhemoglobin levels (specified based on smoking status and age) or proximity to a confirmed CO poisoning case.

Non-fatal exposure to CO as identified based on carboxyhemoglobin levels (specified based on smoking status and age) or proximity to a confirmed CO poisoning case.
Poisoning by other means ICD9: E850.3-E858.99, E866-E866.99
ICD10: X40-X44.9, X49-X49.9, Y10-Y14.9, Y16-Y19.9
Death resulting from accidental exposure to a non-infectious substance (other than CO) which contacts the body or enters into the body via inhalation, ingestion, injection or absorption and causes deranged physiological function of body and/or cellular injury/death.Accidental exposure to a non-infectious substance (other than CO) which contacts the body or enters into the body via inhalation, ingestion, injection or absorption and causes deranged physiological function of body and/or cellular injury/death.
Animal contact ICD9: E905-E906.99
ICD10: W52.0-W62.9, W64-W64.9, X20-X29.9
Death resulting from unintentionally being attacked, struck, impaled, bitten, stung, crushed, exposed to or stepped on by a non-human animal.Bodily damage resulting from unintentionally being attacked, butted, impaled, bitten, stung, crushed, exposed to or stepped on by a non-human animal.
Venomous animal contact ICD9: E905-E905.99
ICD10: W52.3, X20-X29.9
Death resulting from unintentionally being bitten by, stung by, or exposed to a non-human venomous animal.Bodily damage resulting from unintentionally being bitten by, stung by or exposed to a non-human venomous or poisonous animal.
Non-venomous animal contact ICD9: E905-E906.99
ICD10: W52.0-W62.9, W64-W64.9, X20-X29.9
Death resulting from unintentionally being attacked, struck, impaled, crushed, exposed to or stepped on by a non-human animal.Bodily damage resulting from unintentionally being attacked, struck, impaled, crushed, exposed to or stepped on by a non-human animal.
Falls ICD9: E880-E886.99, E888-E888.9, E929.3
ICD10: W00-W19.9
A sudden movement downwards due to slipping, tripping or other accidental movement which results in a person coming to rest inadvertently on the ground, floor or other lower level, resulting in death.A sudden movement downward due to slipping, tripping or other accidental movement which results in a person coming to rest inadvertently on the ground, floor or other lower level, resulting in tissue damage.
Drowning ICD10: W65-W70.9, W73-W74.9
ICD9: E910-E910.99
Death that occurs as a result of immersion in water or another fluid.Non-fatal immersion or submersion in water or another fluid, regardless of whether tissue damage has occurred. The subject can be resuscitated and has not suffered brain death.
Fire, heat, and hot substances ICD9: E890-E899.09, E924-E924.99, E929.4
ICD10: X00-X06.9, X08-X19.9
Death due to unintentional exposure to substances of high temperature sufficient to cause tissue damage on exposure, including bodily contact with hot liquid, solid or gas such as cooking stoves, smoke, steam, drinks, machinery, appliances, tools, radiators and objects radiating heat energy.Unintentional exposure to substances of high temperature sufficient to cause tissue damage on exposure, including bodily contact with hot liquid, solid or gas such as cooking stoves, smoke, steam, drinks, machinery, appliances, tools, radiators and objects radiating heat energy.
Road injuries ICD9: E800.3, E801.3, E802.3, E803.3, E804.3,
E805.3, E806.3, E807.3, E810.0-E810.6,
E811.0-E811.7, E812.0-E812.7, E813.0-
E813.7, E814.0-E814.7, E815.0-E815.7,
E816.0-E816.7, E817.0-E817.7, E818.0-
E818.7, E819.0-E819.7, E820.0-E820.6,
E821.0-E821.6, E822.0-E822.7, E823.0-
E823.7, E824.0-E824.7, E825.0-E825.7,
E826.0-E826.1, E826.3-E826.4, E827.0,
E827.3-E827.4, E828.0, E828.4, E829.0-
E829.4
ICD10: V01-V04.99, V06-V80.929, V82-V82.9,
V87.2-V87.3
Interaction with an automobile, motorcycle, pedal cycle or other vehicles resulting in death.Interaction with an automobile, motorcycle, pedal cycle or other vehicles resulting in bodily damage.
Pedestrian road injuries ICD9: E811.7, E812.7, E813.7, E814.7, E815.7,
E816.7, E817.7, E818.7, E819.7, E822.7,
E823.7, E824.7, E825.7, E826.0, E827.0,
E828.0, E829.0
ICD10: V01-V04.99, V06-V09.9
Interaction, as a pedestrian on the road, with an automobile, motorcycle, pedal cycle or other vehicles resulting in death.Interaction, as a pedestrian on the road, with an automobile, motorcycle, pedal cycle or other vehicles resulting in bodily damage.
Cyclist road injuries ICD9: E800.3, E801.3, E802.3, E803.3, E804.3,
E805.3, E806.3, E807.3, E810.6, E811.6,
E812.6, E813.6, E814.6, E815.6, E816.6,
E817.6, E818.6, E819.6, E820.6, E821.6,
E822.6, E823.6, E824.6, E825.6, E826.1
ICD10: V10-V19.9
Accident, as a cyclist or passenger on a pedal cycle, resulting in death.Accident, as a cyclist or passenger on a pedal cycle, resulting in bodily damage.
Motorcyclist road injuries ICD9: E810.2-E810.3, E811.2-E811.3, E812.2-
E812.3, E813.2-E813.3, E814.2-E814.3,
E815.2-E815.3, E816.2-E816.3, E817.2-
E817.3, E818.2-E818.3, E819.2-E819.3,
E820.2-E820.3, E821.2-E821.3, E822.2-
E822.3, E823.2-E823.3, E824.2-E824.3,
E825.2-E825.3
ICD10: V20-V29.9
Accident, as a rider on a motorcycle, resulting in death.Accident, as a rider on a motorcycle, resulting in bodily damage.
Motor vehicle road injuries ICD9: E810.0-E810.1, E811.0-E811.1, E812.0-
E812.1, E813.0-E813.1, E814.0-E814.1,
E815.0-E815.1, E816.0-E816.1, E817.0-
E817.1, E818.0-E818.1, E819.0-E819.1,
E820.0-E820.1, E821.0-E821.1, E822.0-
E822.1, E823.0-E823.1, E824.0-E824.1,
E825.0-E825.1
ICD10: V30-V79.9, V87.2-V87.3
Accident, as a driver or passenger in a motor vehicle, resulting in death.Accident, as a driver or passenger in a motor vehicle, resulting in bodily damage.
Other road injuries ICD9: E810.4-E810.5, E811.4-E811.5, E812.4-
E812.5, E813.4-E813.5, E814.4-E814.5,
E815.4-E815.5, E816.4-E816.5, E817.4-
E817.5, E818.4-E818.5, E819.4-E819.5,
E820.4-E820.5, E821.4-E821.5, E822.4-
E822.5, E823.4-E823.5, E824.4-E824.5,
E825.4-E825.5, E826.3-E826.4, E827.3-
E827.4, E828.4, E829.4
ICD10: V80-V80.929, V82-V82.9
Death resulting from being a driver or passenger of a vehicle not including automobiles, motorcycles, bicycles (ie, streetcar).Bodily damage resulting from being a driver or passenger of a vehicle not including automobiles, motorcycles, bicycles (ie, streetcar).
Other transport injuries ICD9: E800-E800.2, E801-E801.2, E802-E802.2,
E803-E803.2, E804-E804.2, E805-E805.2,
E806-E806.2, E807-E807.2, E810.7,
E820.7, E821.7, E826.2, E827.2, E828.2,
E830-E838.9, E840-E849.9, E929.1
ICD10: V00-V00.898, V05-V05.99, V81-V81.9,
V83-V86.99, V88.2-V88.3, V90-V98.8
Interaction with a means of transport other than automobile, motorcycle, pedal cycle or other road vehicles resulting in death.Interaction with a means of transport other than automobile, motorcycle, pedal cycle or other road vehicles resulting in bodily damage.
Interpersonal violence ICD9: E960-E969
ICD10: X85-Y08.9, Y87.1-Y87.2
Death from intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, from another person or group not including military or police forces.Sustaining bodily harm in terms of tissue damage from intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, from another person or group not including military or police forces.
Physical violence by firearm ICD9: E965-E965.4
ICD10: X93-X95.9
Death from intentional use of physical force or power by a firearm from another person or group or community not including military or police forces.Sustaining bodily harm in terms of tissue damage from intentional use of physical force or power by a firearm from another person or group not including military or police forces.
Physical violence by sharp object ICD9: E966
ICD10: X99-X99.9
Death from intentional use of physical force or power by a sharp object from another person or group or community not including military or police forces.Sustaining bodily harm in terms of tissue damage from intentional use of physical force or power by a sharp object from another person or group not including military or police forces.
Sexual violence ICD9: E960-E960.1
ICD10: Y05-Y05.9
NAExperiencing at least one event of sexual violence in the last year, where sexual violence is defined as any sexual assault, including both penetrative sexual violence (rape) and non-penetrative sexual violence (other forms of unwanted sexual touching).
Physical violence by other means ICD9: E961-E964, E965.5-E965.9, E967-E969
ICD10: X85-X92.9, X96-X98.9, Y00-Y04.9, Y06-
Y08.9, Y87.1-Y87.2
Death from intentional use of physical force or power by an object other than a firearm or sharp object from another person or group or community not including military or police forces.Sustaining bodily harm in terms of tissue damage from intentional use of physical force or power by an object other than a firearm or sharp object from another person or group not including military or police forces.
Conflict and terrorism ICD9: E979-E979.9, E990-E999.1
ICD10: U00-U03, Y36-Y38.9, Y89.1
Death resulting from the instrumental use of violence by people who identify themselves as members of a group—whether this group is transitory or has a more permanent identity—against another group or set of individuals, in order to achieve political, economic or social objectives.Bodily harm resulting from the instrumental use of violence by people who identify themselves as members of a group—whether this group is transitory or has a more permanent identity—against another group or set of individuals, in order to achieve political, economic or social objectives.
Executions and police conflict ICD9: E970-E978
ICD10: Y35-Y35.93, Y89.0
State-sanctioned executions or police-related altercations leading to death.State-sanctioned executions or police-related altercations leading to bodily damage.
Exposure to forces of nature ICD9: E907-E909.9
ICD10: X33-X38.9
Death resulting from an unforeseen and often sudden natural event such as a hurricane, earthquake, tsunami or tornado.Bodily damage resulting from an unforeseen and often sudden natural event such as a hurricane, earthquake, tsunami or tornado.
Exposure to mechanical forces ICD9: E913-E913.19, E916-E922.99, E928.1-
E928.7
ICD10: W20-W38.9, W40-W43.9, W45.0-W45.2,
W46-W46.2, W49-W52, W75-W76.9
Unintentional death resulting from contact with or threat of an (in)animate object, human or plant.Unintentional bodily damage resulting from contact with or threat of an (in)animate object, human or plant.
Unintentional firearm injuries ICD9: E922-E922.99, E928.7
ICD10: W32-W34.9
Unintentional death resulting from contact with a firearm.Unintentional bodily damage resulting from contact with a firearm.
Other exposure to mechanical forces ICD9: E916-E921.99, E928.1-E928.6
ICD10: W20-W31.9, W35-W38.9, W40-W43.9,
W45.0-W45.2, W46-W46.2, W49-W52
Unintentional death resulting from contact with or threat of an (in)animate object (not including a firearm), human or plant.Unintentional bodily damage resulting from contact with or threat of an (in)animate object (not including a firearm), human or plant.
Pulmonary aspiration and foreign body in airway ICD9: 770.1–770.18, E911-E912.09, E913.8-
E913.99
ICD10: W78-W80.9, W83-W84.9
Unintentional death from inhaling, swallowing or aspirating extraneous materials or substance that enters the airway or lungs.Unintentional bodily damage from inhaling, swallowing or aspirating extraneous materials or substance that enters the airway or lungs.
Foreign body in eyes ICD9: 360.5–360.69, 374.86, 376.6, E914-
E914 09
ICD10: H02.81-H02.819, H44.6-H44.799
NAUnintentional damage from extraneous materials or substance in the orbital structure or eye.
Foreign body in other body part ICD9: 709.4, E915-E915.09
ICD10: M60.2-M60.28, W44-W45, W45.3-W45.9
Unintentional death from an extraneous material or substance being within the body, not including the airway, lungs or eyes.Unintentional bodily damage from an extraneous material or substance being within the body, not including the airway, lungs or eyes.
  • Injuries definition: damage, defined by cellular death, tissue disruption, loss of homeostasis, pain limiting activities of daily living or short-term psychological harm (for cases of sexual violence), inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of a physical force, immersion or exposure, which may include interpersonal or self-inflicted forces.

  • GBD, Global Burden of Disease; ICD, International Classification of Diseases.