Table 4

Covariates used in GBD cause of death models

Cause Global or data-rich model Sex Number of covariates used Covariates used
Transport injuriesGlobal/Data richMale10Alcohol (litres per capita), Education (years per capita), Lag distributed income per capita (I$), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Rainfall Quintile 5 (proportion), Vehicles–two+four wheels (per capita), Vehicles–two wheels fraction (proportion), Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index
Transport injuriesGlobal/Data richFemale10Alcohol (litres per capita), Education (years per capita), Lag distributed income per capita (I$), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Rainfall Quintile 5 (proportion), Vehicles–two+four wheels (per capita), Vehicles–two wheels fraction (proportion), Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index
Road injuriesGlobal/Data richMale13Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Lag distributed income per capita (I$), Population 15 to 30 (proportion), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Vehicles–two+four wheels (per capita), Vehicles–two wheels (per capita), Vehicles - 4 wheels (per capita), Vehicles–two wheels fraction (proportion), Log-transformed summary exposure value (SEV) scalar: Road Inj, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index
Road injuriesGlobal/Data richFemale13Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Lag distributed income per capita (I$), Population 15 to 30 (proportion), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Vehicles–two+four wheels (per capita), Vehicles–two wheels (per capita), Vehicles - 4 wheels (per capita), Vehicles–two wheels fraction (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Road Inj, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare access and quality index
Pedestrian road injuriesGlobal/Data richMale11Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Rainfall Quintile 5 (proportion), Vehicles–two+four wheels (per capita), Vehicles–two wheels fraction (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Pedest, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Pedestrian road injuriesGlobal/Data richFemale11Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Rainfall Quintile 5 (proportion), Vehicles–two+four wheels (per capita), Vehicles–two wheels fraction (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Pedest, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Cyclist road injuriesGlobal/Data richMale10Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Vehicles–two+four wheels (per capita), Vehicles - two wheels fraction (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Cyclist, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Cyclist road injuriesGlobal/Data richFemale10Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Vehicles - two+four wheels (per capita), Vehicles–two wheels fraction (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Cyclist, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Motorcyclist road injuriesGlobal/Data richMale10Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Rainfall Quintile 5 (proportion), Vehicles–two wheels (per capita), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Mot Cyc, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Motorcyclist road injuriesGlobal/Data richFemale10Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Rainfall Quintile 5 (proportion), Vehicles–two wheels (per capita), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Mot Cyc, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Motor vehicle road injuriesGlobal/Data richMale10Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Rainfall Quintile 5 (proportion), Vehicles–four wheels (per capita), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Mot Veh, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Motor vehicle road injuriesGlobal/Data richFemale10Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Rainfall Quintile 5 (proportion), Vehicles–four wheels (per capita), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Mot Veh, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Other road injuriesGlobal/Data richMale8Alcohol (liters per capita), Rainfall Quintile 5 (proportion), Vehicles–two+four wheels (per capita), Vehicles–two wheels fraction (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Oth Road, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Other road injuriesGlobal/Data richFemale8Alcohol (liters per capita), Rainfall Quintile 5 (proportion), Vehicles–two+four wheels (per capita), Vehicles–two wheels fraction (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Oth Road, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Other transport injuriesGlobal/Data richMale11Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Rainfall Quintile 5 (proportion), Vehicles–two+four wheels (per capita), Vehicles–two wheels fraction (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Oth Trans, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Other transport injuriesGlobal/Data richFemale11Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Rainfall Quintile 5 (proportion), Vehicles–two+four wheels (per capita), Vehicles–two wheels fraction (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Oth Trans, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
FallsGlobal/Data richMale7Alcohol (liters per capita), Elevation Over 1500 m (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Falls, Sociodemographic Index, milk adjusted(g), Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
FallsGlobal/Data richFemale7Alcohol (liters per capita), Elevation Over 1500 m (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Falls, Sociodemographic Index, milk adjusted(g), Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
DrowningGlobal/Data richMale10Alcohol (liters per capita), Coastal Population within 10 km (proportion), Education (years per capita), Landlocked Nation (binary), Elevation Under 100 m (proportion), Rainfall Quintile 1 (proportion), Rainfall Quintile 5 (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Drown, Sociodemographic Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
DrowningGlobal/Data richFemale10Alcohol (liters per capita), Coastal Population within 10 km (proportion), Education (years per capita), Landlocked Nation (binary), Elevation Under 100 m (proportion), Rainfall Quintile 1 (proportion), Rainfall Quintile 5 (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Drown, Sociodemographic Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Fire, heat and hot substancesGlobal/Data richMale9Alcohol (liters per capita), Tobacco (cigarettes per capita), Education (years per capita), Indoor Air Pollution (All Cooking Fuels), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Fire, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Fire, heat and hot substancesGlobal/Data richFemale9Alcohol (liters per capita), Tobacco (cigarettes per capita), Education (years per capita), Indoor Air Pollution (All Cooking Fuels), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Fire, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
PoisoningsGlobal/Data richMale8Education (years per capita), Opium Cultivation (binary), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Poison, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
PoisoningsGlobal/Data richFemale8Education (years per capita), Opium Cultivation (binary), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Poison, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Poisoning by carbon monoxideGlobal/Data richMale4Education (years per capita), Lag distributed income per capita (I$), Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index
Poisoning by carbon monoxideGlobal/Data richFemale4Education (years per capita), Lag distributed income per capita (I$), Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare access and quality index
Poisoning by other meansGlobal/Data richMale4Education (years per capita), Lag distributed income per capita (I$), Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare access and quality index
Poisoning by other meansGlobal/Data richFemale4Education (years per capita), Lag distributed income per capita (I$), Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare access and quality index
Exposure to mechanical forcesGlobal/Data richMale7Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare access and quality index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Exposure to mechanical forcesGlobal/Data richFemale7Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare access and quality index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Unintentional firearm injuriesGlobal/Data richMale9Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Health System Access (unitless), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Mech Gun, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Unintentional firearm injuriesGlobal/Data richFemale9Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Health System Access (unitless), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Mech Gun, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Other exposure to mechanical forcesGlobal/Data richMale9Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Health System Access (unitless), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Oth Mech, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Other exposure to mechanical forcesGlobal/Data richFemale9Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Health System Access (unitless), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Oth Mech, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Adverse effects of medical treatmentGlobal/Data richMale3Lag distributed income per capita (I$), Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index
Adverse effects of medical treatmentGlobal/Data richFemale3Lag distributed income per capita (I$), Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index
Animal contactGlobal/Data richMale11Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Elevation Over 1500 m (proportion), Population 15 to 30 (proportion), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Elevation Under 100 m (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Animal, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Animal contactGlobal/Data richFemale11Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Elevation Over 1500 m (proportion), Population 15 to 30 (proportion), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Elevation Under 100 m (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Animal, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Venomous animal contactGlobal/Data richMale10Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Elevation Over 1500 m (proportion), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Elevation Under 100 m (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Venom, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Venomous animal contactGlobal/Data richFemale10Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Elevation Over 1500 m (proportion), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Elevation Under 100 m (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Venom, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Non-venomous animal contactGlobalMale6Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Lag distributed income per capita (I$), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Non Ven, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index
Non-venomous animal contactData richMale10Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Elevation Over 1500 m (proportion), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Elevation Under 100 m (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Non Ven, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Non-venomous animal contactGlobal/Data richFemale10Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Elevation Over 1500 m (proportion), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Elevation Under 100 m (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Non Ven, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Foreign bodyGlobalMale10Education (years per capita), Indoor Air Pollution (All Cooking Fuels), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Over 65 (proportion), Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Foreign bodyGlobalFemale10Education (years per capita), Indoor Air Pollution (All Cooking Fuels), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Over 65 (proportion), Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Pulmonary aspiration and foreign body in airwayGlobal/Data richMale6Alcohol (liters per capita), Lag distributed income per capita (I$), Mean BMI, Log-transformed SEV scalar: F Body Aspn, Sociodemographic Index, Access and Quality Index
Pulmonary aspiration and foreign body in airwayGlobalFemale8Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Mean BMI, Alcohol binge drinker proportion, age-standardised, Log-transformed SEV scalar: F Body Aspn, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare access and quality index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Pulmonary aspiration and foreign body in airwayData richFemale6Alcohol (liters per capita), Lag distributed income per capita (I$), Mean BMI, Log-transformed SEV scalar: F Body Aspn, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index
Foreign body in other body partGlobal/Data richMale10Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Elevation Over 1500 m (proportion), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Elevation Under 100 m (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Oth F Body, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Foreign body in other body partGlobal/Data richFemale10Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Elevation Over 1500 m (proportion), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Elevation Under 100 m (proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Oth F Body, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Environmental heat and cold exposureGlobal/Data richMale11Education (years per capita), Lag distributed income per capita (I$), Population-weighted mean temperature, Elevation Over 1500 m (proportion), Elevation 500 to 1500 m (proportion), Population Density (150–300 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Rainfall (Quintiles 4–5), Sanitation (proportion with access), 90th percentile climatic temperature in the given country-year, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index
Environmental heat and cold exposureGlobal/Data richFemale11Education (years per capita), Lag distributed income per capita (I$), Population-weighted mean temperature, Elevation Over 1500 m (proportion), Elevation 500 to 1500 m (proportion), Population Density (150–300 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Rainfall (Quintiles 4–5), Sanitation (proportion with access), 90th percentile climatic temperature in the given country-year, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index
Other unintentional injuriesGlobal/Data richMale12Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Elevation Over 1500 m (proportion), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Elevation Under 100 m (proportion), Vehicles–two wheels (per capita), Vehicles–four wheels (per capita), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Oth Unint, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Other unintentional injuriesGlobal/Data richFemale12Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Elevation Over 1500 m (proportion), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Elevation Under 100 m (proportion), Vehicles–two wheels (per capita), Vehicles–four wheels (per capita), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Oth Unint, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Self-harmGlobalMale11Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (150–300 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Muslim Religion (proportion of population), Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Self-harmGlobalFemale15Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (150–300 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Religion (binary,>50% Muslim), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Self Harm, Sociodemographic Index, Major depressive disorder, Risk of selfharm due to major depressive disorder, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Non-partner lifetime prevalence of sexual violence (female-only), Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Self-harmData richMale11Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (150–300 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Religion (binary,>50% Muslim), Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Self-harmData richFemale13Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (150–300 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Religion (binary,>50% Muslim), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Self Harm, Sociodemographic Index, Major depressive disorder, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Self-harm by firearmGlobal/Data richMale13Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (150–300 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Religion (binary,>50% Muslim), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Self Harm, Sociodemographic Index, Major depressive disorder, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Self-harm by firearmGlobal/Data richFemale13Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (150–300 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Religion (binary,>50% Muslim), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Self Harm, Sociodemographic Index, Major depressive disorder, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Self-harm by other specified meansGlobal/Data richMale13Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (150–300 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Religion (binary,>50% Muslim), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Self Harm, Sociodemographic Index, Major depressive disorder, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Self-harm by other specified meansGlobal/Data richFemale13Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Population Density (150–300 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (300–500 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (500–1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Religion (binary,>50% Muslim), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Self Harm, Sociodemographic Index, Major depressive disorder, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Interpersonal violenceGlobal/Data richMale8Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Opium Cultivation (binary), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Violence, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Interpersonal violenceGlobal/Data richFemale8Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Opium Cultivation (binary), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Violence, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Physical violence by firearmGlobal/Data richMale8Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Opium Cultivation (binary), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Viol Gun, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Physical violence by firearmGlobal/Data richFemale8Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Opium Cultivation (binary), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Viol Gun, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Physical violence by sharp objectGlobal/Data richMale8Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Opium Cultivation (binary), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Viol Knife, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Physical violence by sharp objectGlobal/Data richFemale8Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Opium Cultivation (binary), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Viol Knife, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Physical violence by other meansGlobal/Data richMale8Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Opium Cultivation (binary), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Oth Viol, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Physical violence by other meansGlobal/Data richFemale8Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Opium Cultivation (binary), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Log-transformed SEV scalar: Oth Viol, Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index, Lag distributed income per capita (I$)
Executions and police conflictGlobal/Data richMale6Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Lag distributed income per capita (I$), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index
Executions and police conflictGlobal/Data richFemale6Alcohol (liters per capita), Education (years per capita), Lag distributed income per capita (I$), Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion), Sociodemographic Index, Healthcare Access and Quality Index
  • BMI, body mass index.