Table 3

Key findings of selected literature: injury type and severity

StudyType of injuryInjury severity
Superficial soft tissue injury (%)Fracture or dislocation (%)Head injury (%)Internal injury (%)ISSOther
Peer-reviewed publications
Trivedi et al 2019165636401Urgent * 33%
Störmann et al 202015584217
Mitchell et al 201913602415
Liew et al 2020287233Median 1
Range 1–5
Kobayashi et al 201912NR4219Median 5.5
IQR 5–9
Brownson et al 201911664217Median 4
Range 1–29
Blomberg et al 20194311222Urgent* 7%
Beck et al 2019463226Urgent* 17%
Bauer et al 202010543317Mean 6.3
SD 6.0
Puzio et al 202014342417Median 1
Badeau et al 201932743620
Namiri et al 20203372732
Aizpuru et al 20199312628
Dhillon et al 2020275523Mean 7.2
Median 5
IQR 2–10
English et al 2020186533181Median 5
IQR 4–9
Farley et al 2020471527
Bresler et al 20192332536
Yarmohammadi et al 2020 †209421
Faraji et al 2020216527
Trivedi et al 20192242Severe‡ 58%
Hennocq et al 2020246247
Kim et al 20202544930
Oksanen et al 202026916522
Shiffler et al 2020192023
Siow et al 2020 §29NR49Mean 8.4
Median 5.0
Ishmael et al 2020 §33NR93
Nellamattathil and Amber 202031NR26
Mayhew and Bergin 201930NR5724
Grey literature (non-journal reports)
Pearson et al 201935
Hojjat et al 201936
Beck et al 2020373226
Chang and Diamond 201938
Allen et al 201939
Sedor and Caswell 201940
Austin Public Health Unit 2019173515
City of Santa Monica 2019Minor injuries in 80%
Cicchino et al 202034537Max. AIS≤2 in 98%
  • *Urgent defined as Canadian Triage Acuity Score of 1 (resuscitation), 2 (emergent) or 3 (urgent).

  • †Reported for patients with facial injuries.

  • ‡Severe defined as fracture, concussion or intracranial haematoma.

  • §Reported for patients with orthopaedic injuries.

  • AIS, Abbreviated Injury Scale; ISS, Injury Severity Score.