Table 1

Categories of river drowning prevention strategies proposed by Delphi participants at phase 1 (n=11)

CategoryStrategies (n)Example strategy
Life jackets9Lifejacket wear for children.
Personal behaviours17Do not engage in water recreation in a river alone.
Knowledge10Strategies to survive cold water immersion.
Public awareness and advocacy12Raise awareness of the dangers of submerged obstacles.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and rescue7Training for all boat personnel in CPR, calling for rescue, and search and rescue.
Personal skills9Teach self-rescue skills to enable unaided movement to water’s edge.
Signage13Highly visible signs warning of local hazards at popular swimming destinations.
Engineering19Safe and accessible infrastructure, such as bridges, for crossing rivers.
Flooding18Establish effective early warning systems for notifying at-risk citizens when rivers are flooded.
Alcohol11Restriction of alcohol usage around hire and drive vessels, such as houseboats and party boats.
Other14Include river drowning prevention in national and local water safety plans.