Table 1

Descriptive statistics comparing low-income and high-income clusters in the city of Toronto

Low income
N=44 census tracts
Mean (SD)
Minimum, maximum
High income
N=58 census tracts
Mean (SD)
Minimum, maximum
P value
Per cent low income30.7 (9.00)4.4 (1.85)<0.0001
Census tract child population (5–14 years)714 (236.4)
205, 1235
438 (238.4)
40, 1110
<0.0001
Child PMVC rates
(#/1000 km road)
1.13 (1.06)
0.00, 4.38
0.21 (0.21)
0.00, 1.05
<0.0001
Roadway environment
Road length (km)
5.69 (4.14)
0.08, 14.88
12.07 (5.55)
1.32, 27.82
<0.0001
Speed humps (#/100 km road)0.08 (0.28)
0.00, 1.38
0.31 (0.61)
0.00, 3.70
<0.0001
Local roads (km/10 km road)5.68 (2.71)
0.00, 11.29
7.92 (1.39)
3.34, 11.15
<0.0001
Missing both sidewalks
(km/10 km road)
0.29 (0.80)
0.00, 3.57
1.19 (1.91)
0.00, 6.54
0.005
Crossing guard (#/10 km/road)2.34 (2.76)
0.00, 10.94
1.16 (1.24)
0.00, 4.10
0.005
One way (km/10 km road)0.44 (0.89)
0.00, 3.77
0.57 (0.99)
0.00, 3.98
0.49
  • PMVC, pedestrian–motor vehicle collision.