Table 1

Results of the meta-analysis of experimental studies for measures and distraction (ie, distracted–undistracted) conditions

Variable k N r d 95% CI95% CrdI
LULU
Initiation duration
 Talking*93060.250.510.140.350.250.25
 Texting/browsing*52160.320.680.160.490.070.58
 Music listening51260.090.17−0.090.260.090.09
Missed opportunities
 Talking*63160.170.340.060.280.170.17
 Texting/browsing21530.180.37−0.090.46−0.140.51
 Music listening165−0.03−0.06−0.470.41−0.390.33
Crossing duration
 Talking61490.140.28−0.020.300.140.14
 Texting/browsing3960.010.02−0.190.210.010.01
 Music listening4980.010.03−0.190.220.010.01
Looking left and right
 Talking11473−0.14−0.29−0.360.08−0.800.52
 Texting/browsing*5245−0.43−0.94−0.67−0.19−0.910.06
 Music listening61910.050.11−0.090.200.050.05
Hits and close calls
 Talking*104650.170.340.120.220.170.17
 Texting/browsing*42170.340.730.230.460.340.34
 Music listening41370.180.37−0.120.49−0.320.69
  • *Confidence interval does not cross zero.

  • CrdI, credibility interval; d, Cohen’s d-effect size transformed from r; k, number of datapoints; N, total number of participants; r, weighted mean correlations.