Table 3

Association between water safety laws and crude open water drowning rates, 2012–2017

IRR (95% CI)
Model 1
(unadjusted)
Model 2
(adjusted for % water)
Model 3
(adjusted for % water area and poverty)
Regulation breadth score
 02.53 (1.75 to 3.66)2.65 (1.52 to 4.60)2.65 (1.51 to 4.65)
 12.19 (1.24 to 3.86)2.49 (1.28 to 4.82)2.49 (1.27 to 4.86)
 21.86 (1.18 to 2.94)1.47 (0.75 to 2.91)1.47 (0.73 to 2.97)
 32.09 (0.98 to 4.43)2.56 (1.05 to 6.25)2.56 (1.01 to 6.44)
 41.70 (0.74 to 3.88)1.70 (0.44 to 6.61)1.70 (0.43 to 6.79)
 51.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
State water area (%)1.03 (1.02 to 1.04)1.03 (1.02 to 1.04)
Low-income families* (%)1.00 (0.97 to 1.03)
Model 1
(unadjusted)
Model 2
(adjusted for other regulation types)
Model 3
(adjusted for other categories, % water area and poverty)
Presence of regulation type
 Tracking/planning/reporting0.42 (0.33 to 0.54)0.55 (0.35 to 0.87)0.36 (0.19 to 0.68)
 Lifeguards0.53 (0.36 to 0.79)0.66 (0.45 to 0.96)0.76 (0.42 to 1.40)
 Water quality0.70 (0.49 to 1.00)0.76 (0.48 to 1.20)0.64 (0.35 to 1.16)
 Rescue/safety equipment0.72 (0.47 to 1.10)1.36 (1.00 to 1.85)1.85 (0.98 to 3.49)
 Signage0.79 (0.51 to 1.20)1.09 (0.77 to 1.53)1.02 (0.58 to 1.80)
State water area (%)1.02 (1.01 to 1.04)
Low-income families* (%)0.98 (0.94 to 1.02)
  • *Low-income families is defined as the proportion of families in the state who are living below 200% of the poverty threshold, 2013 US Census Bureau Current Population Survey, 2012–2017 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.