Table 2

Multilevel multivariable models of each hourly outcome and covariates (MD and 95% CI)

Vehicle volumeViolation rateHigh violation rateMean violation speedMax violation speedMean speed
MD (95% CI)MD (95% CI)MD (95% CI)MD (95% CI)MD (95% CI)MD (95% CI)
Fixed
 Time period
  WarningRefRefRefRefRefRef
  Citation37.1 (−10.4 to 84.7) 6.13 ( 10.1 to 2.17) −0.83 (−2.01 to 0.35)0.072 (−0.095 to 0.24) 2.14 ( 2.87 to 1.42) 1.12 ( 1.64 to 0.60)
 Day
  MondayRefRefRefRefRefRef
  Tuesday 13.9 (8.44 to 19.4) 0.79 ( 0.96 to 0.61) −0.19 (−0.42 to 0.044) 0.13 ( 0.19 to 0.065) 0.26 ( 0.43 to 0.096) 0 .26 ( 0.31 to 0.21)
  Wednesday 19.3 (11.5 to 27.2) 0.62 ( 0.88 to 0.36) −0.32 (−0.74, 0.098) 0.10 ( 0.18 to 0.030) 0.23 ( 0.43 to 0.035) 0.28 ( 0.32 to 0.24)
  Thursday 25.2 (18.1 to 32.3) 0.13 ( 0.24 to 0.013) −0.046 (−0.37 to 0.28)−0.058 (−0.17 to 0.052)−0.11 (−0.33 to 0.10) 0.40 ( 0.47 to 0.32)
  Friday 37.2 (25.4 to 49.0) 0.06 (−0.36 to 0.48)−0.15 (−0.46 to 0.16)−0.068 (−0.17 to 0.032)−0.030 (−0.27, 0.21) 0.23 ( 0.35 to 0.10)
 Quarter
  FallRefRefRefRefRefRef
  Winter 31.7 ( 47.4 to 16.0 ) 1.73 (1.02 to 2.43) 0.26 (0.065 to 0.45) 0.029 (−0.14 to 0.19) 0.71 (0.27 to 1.14) 0.15 ( 0.25 to 0.043)
  Spring−16.5 (−33.9, 0.90) 1.35 (0.70 to 1.99) 0.12 (−0.089 to 0.32)−0.011 (−0.11 to 0.090) 0.49 (0.10 to 0.88) 0.62 ( 0.96 to 0.28)
 Intercept438.6 (326.0 to 551.3)11.8 (7.34 to 16.4)1.83 (0.44 to 0.32)29.5 (29.0 to 29.9)35.6 (34.4 to 37.0)25.8 (24.7 to 26.9)
Random
 Camera51.3 (26.8 to 98.4)4.71 (2.95 to 7.53)1.42 (0.69 to 2.94)0.086 (0.030 to 0.24)0.77 (0.44 to 1.34)0.62 (0.37 to 1.03)
 Intercept145.9 (101.4 to 210.0)5.42 (3.50 to 8.39)1.45 (0.68 to 3.08)0.56 (0.34 to 0.91)1.63 (0.85 to 3.09)1.33 (0.83 to 2.12)
 Correlation0.33 (−0.06, 0.63)−0.97 (−0.99 to 0.92)−0.95 (−0.99 to 0.57)−1.00 (−1.00 to 0.99)−0.43 (−0.76 to 0.068)0.14 (−0.68 to 0.80)
 Residual142.9 (102.1 to 200.0)12.8 (10.8 to 15.3)7.70 (0.59 to 1.00)1.66 (1.54 to 1.80)3.71 (3.52 to 3.91)4.18 (3.67 to 4.75)
  • Bolded results highlight findings whose 95% CI does not cross 0.

  • MD, mean differences.