Table 1

County-level characteristics by Gini Index quartiles in 1990 and 2000 in the US

County-level characteristic*Gini Index quartiles
19902000
LowLow-mediumMedium-highHighLowLow-mediumMedium-highHigh
(0.251–0.353)(0.354–0.375)(0.376–0.403)(0.404–0.561)(0.296–0.371)(0.372–0.396)(0.397–0.423)(0.424–0.585)
(n=777)(n=773)(n=782)(n=774)(n=804)(n=779)(n=752)(n=771)
Firearm homicide victimisation rate†2.48 (3.37)3.62 (4.48)5.64 (6.32)9.65 (9.71)2.38 (3.70)3.73 (4.60)5.57 (5.67)9.83 (9.85)
Deprivation Index2.71 (5.58)0.85 (5.39)−0.76 (4.86)−3.22 (5.20)1.82 (4.19)0.42 (4.44)−0.40 (5.96)−2.29 (6.80)
Social Capital Index0.27 (0.67)0.16 (0.68)−0.09 (0.60)−0.35 (0.54)0.64 (1.41)0.21 (1.43)−0.24 (1.30)−0.66 (1.24)
Crime perpetration rate†
 Non-violent crime2674.4 (1748.7)2767.4 (1683.0)3125.5 (2078.6)3119.7 (2455.4)1631.3 (1250.6)2036.0 (1517.7)1353.2 (1611.3)2600.6 (1976.9)
 Violent crime200.9 (209.2)255.1 (265.1)348.3 (330.9)437.0 (457.4)142.4 (160.7)208.5 (225.1)291.9 (327.8)382.0 (341.3)
% Population by age (years)
 <1422.8 (2.9)22.0 (2.6)21.8 (2.6)23.2 (3.64)23.45 (5.64)22.93 (5.08)23.00 (4.64)23.11 (4.71)
 15–2413.2 (2.9)13.5 (3.3)13.8 (3.7)14.7 (4.0)14.36 (3.44)14.80 (4.15)15.43 (4.63)15.84 (4.90)
 25–3415.7 (2.4)15.1 (2.1)14.8 (2.0)14.8 (2.0)13.05 (4.10)13.31 (3.65)13.89 (3.80)13.91 (3.74)
 35–4414.9 (1.9)14.5 (1.6)14.2 (1.5)13.6 (1.6)17.57 (4.33)17.12 (3.31)17.13 (3.55)16.31 (3.19)
 45–6419.3 (2.1)19.7 (2.1)19.9 (2.2)19.1 (2.3)25.62 (4.43)26.40 (4.50)27.03 (5.01)25.20 (5.24)
 65+14.1 (4.7)15.3 (4.2)15.5 (4.2)14.7 (4.2)16.02 (3.41)16.54 (4.23)16.77 (4.52)15.35 (4.34)
% Population by race
 African–American2.79 (5.93)4.86 (8.84)8.39 (12.61)18.25 (20.33)2.82 (6.56)4.90 (8.09)8.90 (11.94)19.53 (20.91)
 Asian/Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander0.57 (0.94)0.62 (1.39)0.57 (1.19)0.45 (1.39)0.62 (0.83)0.75 (1.23)0.95 (1.59)1.17 (2.64)
 American Indian/Alaskan Native0.46 (1.26)0.89 (2.20)1.36 (3.89)2.64 (10.38)0.76 (1.95)1.51 (5.25)1.68 (4.93)2.47 (10.10)
 Hispanic1.96 (3.75)2.30 (4.69)3.98 (8.36)9.38 (18.83)2.91 (4.67)4.44 (7.93)6.60 (10.53)11.19 (18.90)
 White94.23 (7.63)91.33 (10.60)85.70 (14.38)69.29 (22.63)92.89 (8.73)88.40 (12.23)81.88 (15.20)65.64 (22.83)
% Population male49.4 (1.5)49.2 (1.5)48.9 (1.4)48.5 (1.9)49.8 (1.6)49.6 (1.64)49.5 (1.97)49.2 (2.31)
% Urban population44.2 (30.5)41.6 (31.7)41.6 (31.6)38.4 (31.6)37.2 (27.9)41.0 (30.5)42.5 (32.0)45.3 (34.6)
  • Note: Numbers in the table reflect mean/percentage and SD for county characteristics by each quartile of Gini Index. The Gini Index and % population by age, race, male and urban were all obtained from the US Census. Firearm homicide victimisation rates were obtained from the All County Mortality data maintained by the CDC. Deprivation Index and Social Capital Index were constructed using principal components analyses of several pertinent indicators. Crime perpetration rates were obtained from the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

  • *County-level characteristics were measured in 1990 and 2000 for the Gini Index measured in 1990 and 2000, respectively.

  • †Per 100 000.