Table 1

Participant demographic characteristics, opioid use patterns, overdose history and risk and protective factors

InterventionComparisonTotal
n=115n=126n=241
Age mean SD40.211.542.311.541.311.5
n % n % n %
Female322837296929
Hispanic141221173515
Race
 White6053675412753
 Black171514113113
 Asian002221
 Hawaiian/Pacific Islander002221
 American Indian/Native Alaskan6565125
 Other131114112711
 More than one race181619153716
Housing
 Permanent292544357330
 Impermanent191722184117
 Homeless6758594712653
Education
 <High School383335287330
 High School373245368234
 >High School403546378636
Relationship
 Not in a relationship8675836616971
 In a relationship282542347029
Employment
 Employed9897188
 Unemployed8877887017673
 Retired6543104
 Unable to work7622182912
 Other* 542273
Opioid type
 Pharmaceutical only181613103113
 Heroin and no opioid agonist therapy6758745914159
 Heroin and opioid agonist therapy242124194820
 Opioid agonist therapy no heroin651512219
Smoke/snort/inject opioids94821018019581
# of days used opioids past
30 days mean SD
24.38.425.18.824.78.6
Know others with overdose education
 Yes4539624910744
 No/do not know6960645113355
Know others who have naloxone
 Yes332941337431
 No/do not know8271856716769
Opioid overdose history
 Never overdosed4842564410443
 Overdosed, not past 3 months484243349138
 Overdosed past 3 months191727214619
Used alone past 3 months89771007918978
Always/sometimes use ___ within 2 hours of opioids
 Alcohol363154439037
 Sedatives/downers4842614810945
 More than one kind of opioid5346544310744
 Uppers: cocaine, methamphetamine, pharmaceutical5750725712954