Table 2

Relevant data sources acquired and completeness of drowning mortality

Data sourceStudy design/Data descriptionSitesTime periodTotal all-cause deathsTotal drowning deathsMortality data by study siteMortality data by age groupMortality data by sexICD-10 codesPopulation data
Population-based data
 Ifakara HDSS (Geubbels et al 20157)Longitudinal health and demographic system with verbal autopsies*Ifakara urban HDSS: Ifakara town, Kilombero districtJan 2008–Dec 2014xxxxxxx
*Ifakara rural HDSS: 25 villages across Kilombero & Ulanga districts, Morogoro region
 Rufiji HDSS (Mrema et al 20158)Longitudinal health and demographic system with verbal autopsiesRufiji district (38 villages), Pwani regionJan 2008–Dec 2014xxNAPxxxx
 SAVVY survey (Kabadi et al 20159)Longitudinal health and demographic system with verbal autopsies22 districts across the mainlandJan 2011–Dec 2014xxxxxxx
 AMMP survey (Moshiro et al 200110)Longitudinal health and demographic system with verbal autopsies*Dar es Salaam, Ilala & Temeke districtsJul 1992–Jun 1998Drowning mortality rates by sex and by study site published
*Morogoro Rural district (61 villages), Morogoro region
*Hai district (51 villages), Kilimanjaro region
 Kamugisha et al 200711 Cross-sectional household survey with verbal autopsiesMuheza district (four villages in highland areas & four villages in lowland areas), Tanga regionNot reportedxxNAP
 Kaatano et al 200912 Cross-sectional household survey with verbal autopsiesMuleba district (three villages in malaria epidemic areas & three villages in non-epidemic areas), Kagera regionJul 1997–Jun 2007xxNAPAge groups not comparablexx
Hospital-based data
 Murray et al 201113 Review of all medical records*Five hospitals in Dar es SalaamNov 2006–Dec 2010xxxxxNot exploitable*NAP
*All four hospitals on Pemba island
 Peck et al 201314 Review of medical records of admissions at the adult medical wardsBugando Medical Centre, Mwanza district, Mwanza regionJan 2009–Dec 2011xxNAPNAP
 Boniface et al 201315 Review of medical records of admissions at the casualty departmentsSix hospitals across the mainlandNov 2011–Dec 2012xxNAP
Report–based data
 SUMATRANumber of passengers in distress, rescued and missing related to sunken vessels (>4 m)Tanzanian territorial waters2006–2016xNAP
Global database data
 EM–DATDeaths related to disasters, including water-related disastersTanzania2000–2016xNAP
 GBDModelled national cause-specific mortality estimatesTanzania2016xxNAPxxx
 WHO GHEModelled national cause-specific mortality estimatesTanzania2015xxNAPAge groups not comparablexx
  • *All drowning deaths were allocated the ICD-10 code W65 ‘drowning and submersion while in bath-tub’, and, since this coding seems unlikely in this context, we did not include these data in our analysis of ICD-10 codes.

  • AMMP, Adult Mortality and Morbidity Project; EM-DAT, Emergency Events Database; GBD, Global Burden of Disease; HDSS, Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems; ICD-10, International Classification of Diseases 10th revision; NAP, Non Applicable; SAVVY, Sample Vital registration with Verbal autopsy; SUMATRA, Ministry of Transport Surface and Marine Regulatory Authority; WHO GHE, WHO Global Health Estimates.