Table 2

Analyses by ethnicity and gender within the baseline model: incremental costs, QALYs gained and ICERs (expected value analysis per person for the lifetime of the modelled cohort, with 95% UI)

Population groupNo HSAM—baselineHSAM compared with no HSAM —incremental
Net cost in NZ$QALYs gainedNet cost in NZ$QALYs gainedICER
Total population$72 0007.08$1910.058$9000
($71 400 to $73 300)(6.85 to 7.30)(Cost saving to $339)(0.009 to 0.112)(Cost saving to $20 000)
Māori (Indigenous New Zealanders)$63 5005.77$3280.046$15 000
($63 400 to $64 000)(5.59 to 5.94)($179 to $467)(0.007 to 0.091)($3000 to $28 000)
Māori: equity analysis†$72 8007.81$4240.071$11 000
($72 600 to $73 400)(7.53 to 8.07)($235 to $615)(0.011 to 0.140)($3000 to $19 000)
Non-Māori$72 5007.16$1850.060$9000
($71 900 to $73 800)(6.93 to 7.38)(Cost saving to $338)(0.009 to 0.115)(Cost saving to $19 000)
Men$63 2006.82$2710.059$11 000
($63 000 to $63 900)(6.59 to 7.04)($106 to $407)(0.009 to 0.115)($1000 to $21 000)
Men: equity analysis‡$69 3007.65$3250.071$10 000
($69 100 to $69 900)(7.37 to 7.92)($163 to $475)(0.011 to 0.138)($2000 to $18 000)
Women$79 5007.30$1270.059$8000
($78 600 to $81 200)(7.08 to 7.52)(Cost saving to $307)(0.009 to 0.115)(Cost saving to $19 000)
  • ICERs rounded to the nearest $1000. Other values are rounded to three meaningful digits.

  • †As Māori have higher background mortality rates and higher morbidity, this essentially ‘penalises’ health gain for Māori in the standard analyses. So we present an equity analysis with non-Māori morbidity and mortality rates applied to Māori (ie, expanding the envelope of potential health gain for Māori).

  • ‡As men have higher background mortality rates, this essentially ‘penalises’ health gain for men in the analyses. So we present an equity analysis with women's morbidity and mortality rates applied to men.

  • HSAM, home safety assessment and modification; ICER, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio; NZ, New Zealand; QALYs, quality-adjusted life-years; UI, uncertainty interval.