Table 4

Impact of state policies on non-fatal law enforcement officer assaults, 1998–2013

Dependent variableIRR*95% CI†p Value
Permissive RTC
Total0.720.47 to 1.100.132
Handgun0.740.41 to 1.330.311
Non-handgun0.740.42 to 1.30.296
Missouri's PTP repeal
Total1.830.94 to 3.540.073
Handgun2.140.89 to 5.140.089
Non-handgun1.430.61 to 3.370.416
  • Italic used for p<0.1. *IRR estimated from negative binomial regression.

  • †CI of the estimated IRR.

  • This model controlled for state-aggregated law enforcement expenditures, arrest rates for violent crime and the number of law enforcement officers, as well as percentage poverty, percentage Metropolitan statistical areas and gun availability.

  • IRR, incident rate ratio; PTP, permit-to-purchase; RTC, right-to-carry.