Table 3

Impact of state policies on fatal law enforcement officer assaults, 1984–2013

Dependent variableIRR*95% CI†p Value
Permissive RTC
Total1.020.81 to 1.290.873
Handgun0.920.70 to 1.210.569
Non-handgun1.270.85 to 1.880.241
Three strikes
Total1.331.05 to 1.670.016
Handgun1.270.98 to 1.670.076
Non-handgun1.621.08 to 2.440.020
Missouri's PTP repeal
Total1.230.48 to 3.140.669
Handgun1.520.51 to 4.460.451
Non-handgun0.920.19 to 4.520.917
Connecticut's PTP law
Total0.450.10 to 2.080.307
Handgun0.200.02 to 1.900.159
Non-handgun1.670.18 to 15.180.650
  • Italic used for p<0.1. Bold used for p<0.05. *IRR estimated from negative binomial regression.

  • †CI of the estimated IRR.

  • This model controlled for state-aggregated law enforcement expenditures, arrest rates for violent crime and the number of law enforcement officers, as well as percentage poverty, percentage Metropolitan statistical areas and gun availability

  • IRR, incident rate ratio; PTP, permit-to-purchase; RTC, right-to-carry.