Table 2

Relevant papers discussing risk factors for fatal drowning in rivers (n=18)

ReferenceCountry/area of countryRisk factorsType of study
Ahmed et al51Bangladesh (Matlab)1, 2Population based
Byard and Lipsett35Australia (South Australia)4Case series
Cass et al36Australia (New South Wales)8, 10, 18Case series
Cass et al37Australia (New South Wales)2, 9, 4Case series
Davis et al30USA (New Mexico)6, 12Population based
Fang et al39China (Xiamen city and suburbs)11Population based
Franklin et al4Australia12, 6, 7, 99Population based
Howland et al52USA (Massachusetts)3Telephone survey
Kauffman53USA (Potomac River–West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, Washington DC)10, 3, 13, 18Case studies
Kiakalayeh et al43Iran (Guilan and Mazandran)17, 12Population based
Lunetta et al44Finland3Population based
Newman et al45USA (five counties of Washington State)4, 12, 1, 5, 7, 14Case series
Nixon et al5Australia (Brisbane (Queensland))16Unknown
O'Hare et al46New Zealand14, 17Case series
Patetta and Biddinger47USA (North Carolina)3Population based
Riley et al48Australia (Tasmania)12Case series
Sorey et al54USA15Case series
Wentworth et al50Canada (Brant County)4, 12, 3, 6,7Population based
  • Risk factor coding: 1, summer months; 2, exposure; 3, alcohol; 4, being male; 5, daylight hours; 6, falls into water; 7, swimming; 8, rurality; 9, risk-taking behaviour; 10, river characteristics (eg, caught in current, lost footing due to steep/sharp drop offs); 11, lack of swimming ability; 12, age; 13, not wearing lifejackets; 14, using watercraft; 15, river tree rope swings; 16, lower survival rates/more likely to experience a bad outcome; 17, resident of the area they drowned in (as opposed to a tourist); 18, lack of river knowledge; 19, monsoon period; 20, absence of supervision; 99, unknown activity.