Table 2

Bivariate associations between establishment characteristics and frequency of attempted straw purchases* and undocumented purchases* in the past year and firearm theft in the past 5 years

CharacteristicStraw purchaseUndocumented purchaseTheft
OR*95% CIp ValueOR*95% CIp ValueOR95% CIp Value
Licensee type<0.0001<0.00012.311.57 to 3.38<0.0001
 Pawnbroker2.251.64 to 3.092.091.51 to 2.90
 DealerReferentReferentReferent
Sales (n)<0.00010.00030.0005
 ≥5007.504.60 to 12.233.011.82 to 4.993.741.97 to 7.11
 200–4992.821.77 to 4.482.301.35 to 3.681.961.02 to 3.79
 100–1991.761.08 to 2.842.121.26 to 3.582.601.33 to 5.07
 <100ReferentReferentReferent
Handgun sales (%)†0.290.850.053
 ≥750.710.42 to 1.210.860.49 to 1.501.800.90 to 3.60
 50–741.030.69 to 1.550.950.62 to 1.452.141.25 to 3.68
 25–490.760.48 to 1.201.100.68 to 1.751.630.89 to 3.00
 0–24ReferentReferentReferent
Inexpensive handgun sales (%)‡0.060.030.49
 ≥501.400.93 to 2.111.460.94 to 2.271.360.81 to 2.28
 25–491.741.09 to 2.792.021.23 to 3.321.320.73 to 2.39
 10–241.691.09 to 2.641.791.12 to 2.871.530.88 to 2.64
 0–9ReferentReferentReferent
Sales to women (%)†0.00010.010.004
 ≥252.521.66 to 3.831.931.24 to 3.001.931.12 to 3.34
 11–241.791.17 to 2.721.771.14 to 2.771.680.96 to 2.94
 6–102.061.33 to 3.191.811.14 to 2.872.761.59 to 4.78
 0–5ReferentReferentReferent
Sales to law enforcement (%)†0.030.470.30
 10+1.631.04 to 2.551.400.87 to 2.241.610.89 to 2.91
 5–92.091.29 to 3.381.350.82 to 2.241.540.82 to 2.89
 ≥1, <51.540.98 to 2.431.130.70 to 1.831.750.97 to 3.16
 <1ReferentReferentReferent
Multiple sales (%)†0.010.00020.70
 ≥51.691.11 to 2.572.501.59 to 3.941.210.71 to 2.06
 2–42.011.31 to 3.102.341.47 to 3.741.360.79 to 2.32
 1–1.91.420.94 to 2.161.580.99 to 2.501.080.63 to 1.84
 <1ReferentReferentReferent
Tactical rifle sales (%)§0.0020.0020.03
 ≥201.901.23 to 2.941.821.13 to 2.922.331.33 to 4.10
 6–191.771.13 to 2.782.481.53 to 4.021.921.06 to 3.46
 2–50.980.65 to 1.501.941.23 to 3.051.710.98 to 3.00
 0–1ReferentReferentReferent
Gun show sales (%)†0.046<0.00010.61
 ≥251.981.08 to 3.634.632.52 to 8.481.440.70 to 2.95
 >0, <250.760.43 to 1.341.811.02 to 3.221.090.55 to 2.17
 0ReferentReferentReferent
Internet sales (%)†0.080.0530.47
 ≥101.240.77 to 1.981.600.99 to 2.591.050.58 to 1.91
 >0, <101.591.05 to 2.401.480.97 to 2.271.360.83 to 2.23
 0ReferentReferentReferent
Denied sales (%)¶<0.00010.00030.002
 ≥54.612.92 to 7.302.701.63 to 4.422.281.26 to 4.13
 2–44.232.60 to 6.892.651.58 to 4.473.091.68 to 5.69
 11.991.29 to 3.092.361.46 to 3.831.600.88 to 2.90
 <1ReferentReferentReferent
Trace requests (%)**<0.00010.004<0.0001
 ≥23.832.41 to 6.092.141.33 to 3.474.562.41 to 8.63
 >0.5, <24.462.80 to 7.112.271.40 to 3.672.751.42 to 5.31
 >0, ≤0.54.012.48 to 6.502.001.21 to 3.302.931.50 to 5.74
 0ReferentReferentReferent
  • *Results obtained by ordinal regression. ORs represent the effect of a given characteristic on the odds of reporting attempted straw purchases or undocumented purchases with a greater frequency than was reported by the referent group.

  • †Percentage of overall firearm sales in 2010.

  • ‡Percentage of handgun sales in 2010.

  • §Percentage of rifle sales in 2010.

  • ¶Percentage of sales that were denied after a background check, average over 5 years.

  • **Annual number of trace requests, average over 5 years, as percentage of overall firearm sales in 2010.