Table 1

Inclusion/exclusion criteria

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
Relevant to research questionsDuplicate articles
Published in EnglishAbstracts only
Human subjectsPopulation exclusive to paediatrics (Age <16 years)
Adult population (aged ≥16 years)Non-traumatic causes
Traumatic injuries or causeNot relevant to spinal immobilisation
Based in prehospital settingsConference proceedings
All study types