Table 1

Definitions of route types and bicycling infrastructure, and selected characteristics as observed at the randomly selected study control sites

Route types
 Major streetsPaved city streets with more than two demarcated moving lanes of motor vehicle traffic, mainly arterials; median* motor vehicle speed 40 km/h; median motor vehicle traffic 966/h, median cyclist traffic  36/h
 Minor streetsPaved city streets with two demarcated moving lanes of motor vehicle traffic, mainly connectors; median motor vehicle speed 37 km/h; median motor vehicle traffic 576/h, median cyclist traffic 24/h
 Local streetsPaved city streets with no demarcated lanes for motor vehicle traffic; most were in residential areas; median motor vehicle speed 30 km/h; median motor vehicle traffic 48/h, median cyclist traffic 0/h
 SeparatedRoutes that were physically separated from traffic, at least on segments between intersections; no motor vehicle traffic, median cyclist traffic 24/h, median pedestrian traffic 12/h
Bicycling infrastructure
 Cycle trackPaved path meant for cyclist use alongside major or minor streets, separated by a physical barrier, for example, a curb or bollards
 Bike laneBicycle-only lane on a major or minor street, marked with solid or dotted lines on the street surface
 Bike pathBicycle-only paved path meant for cyclist use away from streets,  for example, in parks
 Multi-use pathPaved or unpaved path meant for non-motorised use by pedestrians, cyclists, skaters and others, either alongside city streets or away from streets,  for example, in parks
 Sharrows or shared laneSection of a major or minor street with markings on the street surface indicating shared bike–high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane, shared bike–bus lane, or sharrows indicating bikes and motor vehicles share space
 Traffic diverter on local streetsMedian, diverter and any other treatment (at the nearest intersection) designed to prevent some or all motor vehicle traffic from entering the street
 Traffic slowing device on local streetsTraffic circles or curb extensions (at the nearest intersection) and speed humps or bumps (within 100 m of the site); designed to reduce motor vehicle speeds and, in the case of curb extensions, also facilitate pedestrian crossing
 Traffic circleA small version (usually 6–8 m in diameter) of a roundabout implemented at intersections of two local streets (see also figure 4); all traffic is required to travel around the central circular island to the right
  • *Median vehicle speeds and traffic counts as measured at the randomly selected control sites.