Table 3

Author interpretation of trends and recommendations

Author (Year of publication)Explanation of trends provided by author* Policy and practice recommendations by author
Birken (2006)HealthcareA national injury prevention strategy is needed with policies focusing on (i) injuries with the greatest morbidity and mortality (ii) reducing child injury in low SES areas to at least that in high SES areas (iii) targeting injuries with the largest SES rate differences (fires, drowning and falls)
Chien (2010)
  • Social

  • Legislative

None stated
Danilla (2004)
  • Social

  • Healthcare

Improve preventive campaigns
Edwards (2006)
  • Social

  • Other

None stated
Flanagan (2005)
  • Social

  • Technological

  • Healthcare

None stated
Guyer (2000)OtherNone stated
Jansson (2006)
  • Political

  • Social

  • Technological

  • Legislative

  • Healthcare

Four recommendations: (i) Implementation of an architectural style including transport/road user separation and safer cars (ii) Expansion of preschool services and leisure services (iii) National mandatory free swim training for school children (iv) Local safe community programmes to reduce risk exposure
Johansson (2005)Social(i) Legislation to ban night time driving for teenagers (ii) use of alcolocks on cars (iii) restricting access to means of self harm for example, drugs, firearms, railways, bridges etc
Kivisto (2009)
  • Social

  • Technological

  • Legislative

  • Healthcare

(i) Promotion of family well being (ii) prevention of teenage suicides and substance abuse (iii) Pharmaceutical industry to take more responsibility for drug safety (iv) safer resistant closures (v) more effective parental education
Lanatto (2008)
  • Social

  • Technological

  • Healthcare

None stated
Li (2001)
  • Political

  • Economic

  • Social

  • Technological

  • Legislative

  • Healthcare

More effective interventions aimed at high risk groups are required
Lie (1990)
  • Political

  • Economic

None stated
Lu (1998)
  • Economic

  • Social

Priorities areas include reducing adolescent RTIs (especially motorcycle RTIs) and drowning prevention
Lunetta (1998)SocialNone stated
Lunetta (2004)
  • Legislative

  • Social

  • Technological

  • Other

(i) Development of an enhanced surveillance system for drowning (ii) Increased policy on alcohol use in natural water settings
Mattila (2005)
  • Social

  • Technological

  • Legislative

  • Healthcare

(i) Prevention of adolescent violence and suicide requires attention (ii) Family support programs are needed during periods of economic depressions
Mujkic (2008)
  • Political

  • Social

(i) Firearm injury prevention should be focus for injury prevention in war and post-war periods (ii) focus on suicide prevention
Nakahara (2002)
  • Social

  • Technological

  • Legislative

Use a systematic environmental approach to reduction of child pedestrian injuries; (i) complete separation of pedestrians and cyclists from traffic (ii) traffic calming in residential areas (iii) safe outdoor areas (iv) encourage children to be independent and mobile (v) avoid restrictions on children's activities
Olson (1990)
  • Social

  • Legislative

  • Healthcare

Need for new intervention strategies to decrease injury deaths among children in New Mexico
Pan (2006) (2007)
  • Social

  • Technological

  • Legislative

Interventions need to target territories with higher mortality rates
Pakkari (2000)
  • Social

  • Technological

  • Healthcare

Public campaigns and trauma care should continue
Pearson (2009)
  • Social

  • Technological

  • Legislative

Policy makers should resist pressures to target preventive measures exclusively or predominantly at boys
Peck (2007)
  • Political

  • Economic

  • Social

(i) A continuous standardised injury surveillance system is needed between countries to allow analysis with specific economic and health indicators (ii) Adopt a public health approach to injury prevention, with better policy advocacy, implementation and enforcement. (iii) Monitor trends in injury mortality in countries experiencing social and political upheavals
Pressley (2007)
  • Economic

  • Technological

  • Social

  • Legislative

  • Healthcare

(i) Targeted promotion of use of child booster seats (ii) Adult smoking cessation programs may protect young children from residential fires (iii) Continue injury surveillance, particularly in areas with socioeconomic disparities or persistent or worsening injury rates (iv) Expand prevention for high risk populations, targeted those most at risk (v) develop new strategies where rates or disparities remain persistent
Schlueter (2004)
  • Social

  • Technological

  • Legislative

  • Healthcare

None stated
Singh (1996)
  • Economic

  • Social

  • Technological

  • Legislative

  • Healthcare

None stated
Singh (2007)
  • Economic

  • Social

  • Healthcare

Strategies aimed at narrowing gap may need to aim not only at child health services but also at reducing inequalities in material and social living conditions
Strukcinstiene (2008a, 2008b)
  • Political

  • Economic

  • Social

  • Healthcare

Focus needed to prevent road traffic injuries in adolescents and young adults
  • * Explanations of trends were categorised by the reviewers as either political, economic, social, technological, legislative, healthcare, or other.

  • RTI, Road Traffic Injury; SES, Socioeconomic Status.