Table 4

Summary of all penalties in control and experimental groups before and after intervention. Penalties are recorded as mean (SEM) number of penalties per group per 1000 player hours

Control (mean penalties per 1000 player hours (SEM))Experimental (mean penalties per 1000 player hours (SEM))
Before surveyAfter surveyBefore videoAfter video
*p<0.05, Student’s t test, comparing before/after results in each group.
Roughing107.5 (2.5)102.3 (11.4)89.4 (36.3)98.4 (22.3)
Tripping62.5 (2.5)62.5 (17,0)66.6 (22.0)26.1 (10.8)
Interference50 (5.0)*28.4 (5.7)*53.9 (14.5)48.4 (17.2)
Slashing32.5 (22.5)39.7 (5.7)44.8 (20.4)35.9 (5.3)
Elbowing27.5 (2.5)22.7 (11.4)26.9 (7.2)17.7 (2.6)
Checking from behind22.5 (12.5)34.1 (0.0)38.4 (3.7)*7.6 (0.69)*
Other17.5 (2.5)22.7 (22.7)17.6 (14.1)8.9 (8.9)
High sticking15.0 (0)11.4 (11.4)24. (13.7)19.3 (10.4)
Holding12.5 (2.5)*22.7 (0.0)*12.5 (2.8)18.7 (9.4)
Hooking10 (5.0)11.4 (0.0)27.8 (3.1)23.1 (5.0)
Charging5.0 (0.0)5.7 (5.7)10.9 (2.4)4.9 (4.9)
Cross checking5.0 (5.0)11.0 (11.4)23.7 (1.3)*13.0 (3.4)*
Unsportsmanlike conduct2.5 (2.5)0.0 (0.0)9.8 (6.8)4.9 (4.9)
Boarding2.5 (0.0)11.4 (0.0)10.6 (1.7)7.1 (4.3)
Fighting0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)
Spearing0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)