Table 1

Exposures of interest for the three falls case control studies

Stairway fallsFalls on one levelFalls from furniture
*Safety gates on stairs or used elsewhere § xxx
*Baby walkers xxx
*Play pens xxx
*Travel cots xxx
*Stationary activity centres xxx
Loose carpets on stairs § x
*Presence of bannisters and *width of bannister gaps § x
*Presence of handrails § x
Lighting on stairs § x
Tripping hazards on stairs § x
Stairway characteristics (*steepness, width, *landings, *winding stairs, state of repair of steps and *type of stair coverings) § x
Rugs or carpets firmly fixed to floor § x
Electric wires or cables trailing across floors § x
Presence of tripping hazards on the floor § x
*Use of furniture corner covers § x
Use of locks on doors leading to gardens or yards § x
Harnesses in high chairs § x
Bunk beds § x
Leaving child unattended on raised surfaces (not in car seat or bouncing cradle) § x
Placing car seats or bouncing cradles on raised surfaces § x
Frequency of children climbing or playing on furniture § x
Climbing or playing on garden furniture § x
Unsupervised playing in the garden § xx
Teaching and following safety rules including:41
What to do or not do if the floor is slippery § x
About running in the house § x
About jumping on the bed or furniture § x
What to do or how to behave when going down the stairs § x
About carrying big things or many things while going down stairs § x
  • * Exposures validated by home observation.

  • Measured in children aged 0–12 months.

  • Measured in children aged 13–36 months.

  • § Measured in children aged 37–59 months.