Table 1

Studies meeting the inclusion criteria

Author (Year of publication), Country (High, Middle or Low income)Quality rating* Range of years (total number) [number of time periods reported]Age range (years)Injury trends reported
By injury typeBy age (years)By genderBy ethnicityBy socio-economic group
Birken11 (2006) Canada (H)B1971–1998 (27 y) [6]0–14All cause, RTI, fire, falls, drowning, suffocation Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Bjornstig12 (2006) Northern Sweden (H)C1977–2004 (28 y) [2]0–4All cause, RTI, drowning, asphyxiation Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Chien13 (2010) Taiwan (M)A1986–2006 (20 y) [20]0–19All cause, RTI, fire, falls, drowning, poisoning, suffocation, suicide, homicide<1, 1–4, 5–9, 10–14, 15–19, 0–19 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Danilla14 (2004) Chile (M)B1954–1999 (46 y) [46]0–19Burns0–4, 5–19 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Edwards15 (2006) England & Wales (H)A1979–2003 (24 y) [3]0–15All cause Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Flanagan16 (2005), England & Wales (H)B1968–2000 (32 y) [32]0–10Poisoning (including by gases from fires)<1, 1–4, 5–9 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Guyer17 (2000) USA (H)B1900–1998 (98 y) [98]1–19All cause Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Jansson18 (2006) Sweden (H)B1966–2001 (35 y) [2]0–14All cause, transport, fires, drowning, falls, poisoning, suicide, homicide0–4, 5–9, 10–14 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Johansson19 (2005) Sweden (H)B1981–2000 (20 y) [20]13–19RTI, suicide, unintentional13–15, 16–19 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Kivisto20 (2009) Finland (H)A1969–2003 (35 y) [7]0–15Poisoning (intentional and unintentional)0–4, 5–12, 13–15, 5–15 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Lantto21 (2008) Finland (H)B1969–2004 (36 y) [36]1 month–15 yearsAll cause Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Li22 (2001), USA (H)B1910–1994 (84 y) [17]0–19All cause5–9, 15–19 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Lie23 (1990) Norway (H)B1958–1988 (30 y) [7]0–19All cause, RTI0–4, 5–9, 10–14, 15–19 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Lu24 (1998) Taiwan (M)A1965–1994 (30 y) [6]10–19All cause, RTI, falls, fires, poisoning, drowning, suicide, homicide10–14, 15–19 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Lunetta25 (1998) Finland (H)A1969–1995 (26 y) [26]0–14Drowning<1, 1–4, 5–14 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Lunetta26 (2004) Finland (H)B1970–2000 (30) [2]0–14Drowning0–4, 5–14 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Mattila27 (2005) Finland (H)A1971–2002 (32 y) [32]10–19All cause, RTI, drowning, suicide, homicide10–14, 15–19 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Mujkic28 (2008) Croatia (M)B1986–2005 (20 y) [4]0–19All cause, unintentional, suicide & homicide (weapon related and not related)0–14, 15–19 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Nakahara29 (2002) Japan (H)B1968–1998 (30 y) [30]0–12Pedestrian0–6, 7–12 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Olson30 (1990) New Mexico, USA (H)A1958–1982 (25 y) [5]0–14All cause, RTI, fires, falls, drowning, poisoning0–4, 5–9, 10–14 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Pan31 (2006) Canada (H)B1979–2002 (23 y) [23]0–14All cause, RTI, fires, falls, drowning, poisoning, suicide0–4, 5–9, 10–14 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Pan32 (2007) Canada (H)B1979–2003 (24 y) [24]15–19All cause, RTI, fires, falls, drowning, cut, poisoning, suffocation, unintentional, suicide, assault15–19 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Pakkari33 (2000) Finland (H)A1971–1995 (25 y) [25]0–14RTI<1, 1–4, 5–9, 10–14 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Pearson34 (2009) Scotland (H)A1982–2006 (25 y) [5]0–14All cause, RTI, fires, falls, drowning, poisoning<1, 1–4, 5–9, 10–14 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Peck35 (2007) 20 countries: Ex-USSR, Italy, UK, France, Finland, Austria (H/M)B1980–2003 (23 y) [23]0–14RTI, fires, falls, drowning, poisoning, homicides, suicides0–4, 5–14 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Pressley36 (2007) USA (50 states) (H)B1981–2003 (22 y) [22]0–4All cause, RTIs, fires, drowning, poisoning, firearm injury, intentional injury Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Schlueter37 (2004) Switzerland (H)B1969–1997 (28 y) [4]10–19All cause, RTI, suicide, overdose (of undetermined intent)10–14, 15–19 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Singh38 (1996) USA (H)A1968–1992 (24 y) [24]1–14All cause, RTI, Homicide, Suicide1–4, 5–14 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Singh39 (2007) USA (H)A1969–2000 (21y) [7]1–14All cause, unintentional injury, homicide, suicide Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
Strukcinskeine40 41 (2008a,b) Lithuania (M)B1971–2005 (35 y) [35]0–19All cause, RTI, burns/fires, drowning0–14, 15–19 Embedded Image Embedded Image Embedded Image
  • All studies used routine data sources (eg, death registration) except; Bjornstig (Forensic medicine dataset and police records), Kivisto (routine & poison information centre statistics), Nakahara (traffic accident statistics) and Peck (WHO statistics).

  • * Quality rating: [A] Sound methodology and clear reporting [B] Minor concerns regarding methodology or reporting but not to the extent that the validity of the results is doubted [C] Serious concerns regarding the methodology or reporting leading to doubt of the validity of results reported (studies with a C quality rating have not been included in the synthesis of findings (table 2 and table 3)).

  • Embedded Image , Reported in this study; Embedded Image , Not reported in this study.