Table 3

Multivariate analysis of alcohol use and alcohol-related risk behaviours by state of residence, demographic characteristics, exposure to firearms and among firearm owners by presence or absence of specific firearms-related behaviour*

Characteristic or behaviourAny alcohol≥5 Drinks/occasionDrink and drive≥60 Drinks/month
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
State
 Alaska2.66 (2.30 to 3.08)2.17 (1.76 to 2.68)1.52 (0.91 to 2.56)1.29 (0.88 to 1.90)
 Colorado3.25 (2.85 to 3.71)1.78 (1.44 to 2.18)1.96 (1.20 to 3.21)1.02 (0.69 to 1.51)
 Hawaii3.49 (3.03 to 4.01)2.26 (1.83 to 2.80)2.36 (1.42 to 3.94)1.87 (1.28 to 2.71)
 Mississippi0.98 (0.85 to 1.14)0.96 (0.75 to 1.23)0.98 (0.53 to 1.83)0.80 (0.51 to 1.26)
 New Hampshire3.04 (2.65 to 3.49)1.91 (1.54 to 2.37)1.37 (0.79 to 2.40)0.94 (0.61 to 1.44)
 New Jersey3.35 (2.98 to 3.77)1.62 (1.33 to 1.98)1.45 (0.88 to 2.41)0.83 (0.56 to 1.23)
 North Dakota2.06 (1.81 to 2.34)2.37 (1.94 to 2.89)3.17 (2.03 to 4.97)0.92 (0.62 to 1.36)
 OhioReferentReferentReferentReferent
Age
 18–244.35 (3.64 to 5.21)18.33 (11.62 to 28.92)23.49 (5.69 to 97.00)2.60 (1.46 to 4.63)
 25–344.71 (4.03 to 5.52)15.02 (9.63 to 23.44)21.71 (5.35 to 88.19)1.96 (1.14 to 3.37)
 35–444.09 (3.51 to 4.77)9.42 (6.04 to 14.70)14.99 (3.69 to 60.97)1.91 (1.12 to 3.27)
 45–543.15 (2.69 to 3.68)5.43 (3.45 to 8.55)7.57 (1.82 to 31.51)1.38 (0.79 to 2.42)
 55–642.33 (1.96 to 2.75)3.43 (2.13 to 5.54)1.63 (0.32 to 8.43)1.32 (0.72 to 2.40)
 65–741.62 (1.36 to 1.92)2.04 (1.24 to 3.38)1.67 (0.32 to 8.61)1.51 (0.84 to 2.72)
 75+ReferentReferentReferentReferent
Sex
 Male1.90 (1.76 to 2.05)3.87 (3.45 to 4.36)2.39 (1.81 to 3.15)7.42 (5.56 to 9.92)
 FemaleReferentReferentReferentReferent
Race
 Black0.63 (0.54 to 0.72)0.76 (0.59 to 0.97)0.51 (0.25 to 1.06)0.81 (0.49 to 1.32)
 Hispanic0.53 (0.46 to 0.62)0.91 (0.73 to 1.13)0.78 (0.46 to 1.31)0.88 (0.56 to 1.38)
 Other0.45 (0.40 to 0.51)0.99 (0.83 to 1.18)0.90 (0.59 to 1.36)1.04 (0.75 to 1.45)
 WhiteReferentReferentReferentReferent
Exposure to firearms
 Firearm owner1.34 (1.21 to 1.47)1.32 (1.16 to 1.50)1.79 (1.34 to 2.39)1.45 (1.14 to 1.83)
 Household1.19 (1.06 to 1.33)1.03 (0.85 to 1.25)1.27 (0.83 to 1.94)1.30 (0.83 to 2.02)
 No firearmsReferentReferentReferentReferent
Loaded unlocked firearm at home
 Firearm owner, ‘yes’1.40 (1.17 to 1.69)1.82 (1.45 to 2.29)3.50 (2.27 to 5.38)2.28 (1.58 to 3.29)
 Firearm owner, ‘no’1.30 (1.17 to 1.44)1.22 (1.06 to 1.40)1.49 (1.9 to 2.04)1.30 (1.01 to 1.67)
 No firearmsReferentReferentReferentReferent
Drive/ride in vehicle with loaded firearm
 Firearm owner, ‘yes’1.54 (1.25 to 1.90)1.72 (1.35 to 2.19)3.00 (1.91 to 4.70)2.17 (1.44 to 3.25)
 Firearm owner, ‘no’1.30 (1.17 to 1.44)1.24 (1.08 to 1.42)1.58 (1.16 to 2.15)1.33 (1.04 to 1.71)
 No firearmsReferentReferentReferentReferent
Carry firearm for protection against people
 Firearm owner, ‘yes’1.28 (0.93 to 1.76)1.45 (0.99 to 2.11)2.13 (1.00 to 4.56)1.59 (0.81 to 3.13)
 Firearm owner, ‘no’1.32 (1.20 to 1.46)1.29 (1.13 to 1.48)1.74 (1.30 to 2.34)1.43 (1.13 to 1.82)
 No firearmsReferentReferentReferentReferent
Confront another person with firearm
 Firearm owner, ‘yes’1.20 (0.54 to 2.66)1.19 (0.50 to 2.80)1.20 (0.16 to 9.08)2.21 (0.65 to 7.51)
 Firearm owner, ‘no’1.32 (1.20 to 1.46)1.30 (1.14 to 1.48)1.77 (1.32 to 2.37)1.43 (1.12 to 1.81)
 No firearmsReferentReferentReferentReferent
Attend firearm safety workshop
 Firearm owner, ‘yes’1.19 (0.97 to 1.46)1.17 (0.92 to 1.49)1.11 (0.63 to 1.96)0.85 (0.51 to 1.43)
 Firearm owner, ‘no’1.35 (1.21 to 1.49)1.34 (1.16 to 1.54)1.96 (1.44 to 2.66)1.60 (1.25 to 2.06)
 No firearmsReferentReferentReferentReferent
  • * State of residence, age, sex and race were entered into all regression equations. For analyses of firearm-related behaviours, separate regressions were performed for each behaviour.