Table 4

Risk factors for dog bite injury: dog factors

SourceStudy designDog genderDog breedOver-representation of breedInteraction before attackUnprovoked attackPrevious history of biting
ED = emergency department.
Ashby, 199610 (Australia)ED surveillance, n=1916German shepherd, bull terrier, heeler, RottweilerPlaying: 17% Petting: 10% Feeding: 5%
Flores et al, 199712 (Canada)ED surveillance, telephone follow up, n=38573% maleGerman shepherd, cocker spaniel, Rottweiler, golden retrieverOrdinary interaction: 38% Teasing: 33% No interaction: 29%29%72%, no previous history of biting
Gerschman et al, 199419 (US)Case-control study, non-household members, n=178 pairsMale OR 6.2 (2.5 to 15.1)German shepherd OR 16.4 (3.8 to 71.4)
Chow-chow OR 4.0 (1.2 to 13.7)
Shewell and Nancarrow, 199138 (UK)Case series in plastic surgery practice, n=14685% male (of 96 cases)Staffordshire bull terrier, Jack RussellPlaying: 12% Petting: 13% Waking: 15%42%
Greenhalgh, et al, 199140 (Australia)ED case series, children, n=159German shepherdUncommon
Avner and Baker, 198939 (US)Case series of child hospital attendances, n=168German shepherd 20.8%, pit bull 19.6%46% provokedSignificantly more pit bull terrier attacks unprovoked
Patrick and O'Rourke, 199828 (US)Random sample of animal control surveillance data, n=30050% provoked in children <5 years, significantly more likely to provoke than older children
Thompson, 199726 (Australia)ED surveillance, n=356, population survey, n=3093German shepherd, pit bull terrier, blue/red heeler, Doberman, RottweilerAll 4–5 times higher frequency than other breeds
South Australian Health Commission 199033 (Australia)ED surveillance children 0–12 years, registry of Adelaide dogs% Attacks v % dog population Bull terrier 5.4, German shepherd 4.2, Doberman 4.0, Rottweiler 2.6, blue heeler 2.4, collie 1.2