Table 2

Estimated relative risk* and dose response for injury, accident, motor vehicle accident, suicide, and homicide in current compared with never cigarette smokers

No of casesCrudeDemographically† adjustedFully adjusted‡
*Relative risk estimated by Cox hazard proportion models (see methods).
†Sex stratified and adjusted for age and race.
‡Stratified for sex and adjusted for age, race, education, marital status, alcohol use, and seat belt use.
§Trend test using non-smokers (never + ex), 1–14, 15–24, and 25+ cigarettes/day.
All external cause (ICD-9 E800–E999)
    Never smoker941.001.001.00
    Former smoker4220.92 (0.61 to 1.38)0.73 (0.49 to 1.09)0.70 (0.44 to 1.09)
    Current smoker (cigarettes/day)741.86 (1.30 to 2.66)1.60 (1.12 to 2.29)1.42 (0.99 to 2.05)
        1–14191.83 (1.09 to 3.08)1.78 (1.06 to 3.01)1.59 (0.92 to 2.77)
        15–24271.53 (0.91 to 2.59)1.37 (0.81 to 2.32)1.33 (0.77 to 2.28)
        ≥25252.65 (1.56 to 4.52)2.06 (1.21 to 3.49)1.91 (1.06 to 3.45)
    Test for trend§p<0.000p<0.006p<0.030
Unintentional injury (ICD-9 E800–E949)
    Never smoker661.001.001.00
    Former smoker321.08 (0.67 to 1.73)0.89 (0.56 to 1.41)0.86 (0.51 to 1.44)
    Current smoker (cigarettes/day)431.87 (1.22 to 2.86)1.66 (1.09 to 2.53)1.56 (1.01 to 2.41)
        1–14121.99 (1.07 to 3.73)1.97 (1.06 to 3.66)1.87 (0.98 to 3.59)
        15–24201.87 (1.02 to 3.45)1.75 (0.95 to 3.22)1.92 (1.04 to 3.52)
        ≥2581.52 (0.68 to 3.40)1.29 (0.58 to 2.84)1.18 (0.49 to 2.85)
    Test for trend§p<0.027p<0.081p<0.124
Motor vehicle crash (ICD-9 E810–E825)
    Never smoker271.001.001.00
    Former smoker151.14 (0.59 to 2.22)0.99 (0.51 to 1.93)0.89 (0.41 to 1.96)
    Current smoker (cigarettes/day)222.14 (1.12 to 4.11)1.93 (1.00 to 3.73)1.83 (0.97 to 3.44)
        1–1472.13 (0.83 to 5.48)2.03 (0.83 to 4.99)1.92 (0.79 to 4.66)
        15–2491.81 (0.77 to 4.27)1.68 (0.69 to 4.10)1.74 (0.76 to 4.03)
        ≥2541.65 (0.55 to 4.91)1.34 (0.43 to 4.12)1.40 (0.42 to 4.68)
    Test for trend§p<0.135p<0.332p<0.422
Suicide (ICD-9 E950–E959)
    Never smoker161.001.001.00
    Former smoker90.81 (0.33 to 1.99)0.55 (0.23 to 1.36)0.49 (0.17 to 1.42)
    Current smoker (cigarettes/day)212.17 (1.02 to 4.62)1.75 (0.80 to 3.81)1.36 (0.60 to 3.12)
        1–1452.05 (0.67 to 6.24)2.15 (0.71 to 6.51)1.53 (0.46 to 5.10)
        15–2430.75 (0.17 to 3.36)0.61 (0.13 to 2.79)0.51 (0.11 to 2.42)
        ≥25135.80 (2.30 to 14.62)3.58 (1.32 to 9.69)2.81 (0.95 to 8.31)
    Test for trend§p<0.005p<0.062p<0.195
Homicide (ICD-9 E960–E969)
    Never smoker101.001.001.00
    Former smoker10.16 (0.02 to 1.21)0.13 (0.02 to 0.92)0.16 (0.02 to 1.07)
    Current smoker (cigarettes/day)71.16 (0.41 to 3.30)1.00 (0.36 to 2.75)0.77 (0.34 to 1.74)
        1–1410.35 (0.04 to 2.87)0.31 (0.04 to 2.60)0.26 (0.03 to 1.98)
        15–2431.04 (0.25 to 4.29)0.97 (0.23 to 4.10)0.64 (0.12 to 3.36)
        ≥2533.58 (1.05 to 12.28)2.95 (0.83 to 10.49)2.53 (0.79 to 8.14)
    Test for trend§p<0.203p<0.286p<0.374