Table 2

Examples of study designs commonly used in the evaluation of injury interventions: non-experimental designs

Adapted from Shortell and Richardson, 1978.23
(1) One shot case study
Group 1Intervene→observe
    Example: monitored fatal child refrigerator entrapments in California after state and federal laws enacted15
(2) One group pretest/post-test
Group 1Observe→intervene→observe
    Example: assessed fatal child window falls in New York City before and after community education and window guard program44
(3) Static group comparison
Group 1Intervene→observe
Group 2No action→observe
    Examples: surveyed smoke detectors,41 pool drownings,45 and firearm deaths27 in similar cities or counties with and without regulatory interventions