Table 1

Hierarchy of outcomes used in the evaluation of injury interventions

Injury outcomeData sourcesExample
Adapted from National Committee for Injury Prevention and Control, 1989.43
(A) Actual injuries
    1. Fatal injuryDeath certificatesRefrigerator entrapment deaths15
    2. Hospitalized injuryHospital discharge dataChild clothing related burns38
    3. Emergency department treated injuryEmergency department recordsBottle deposit law and glass related lacerations10
    4. Any medically treated injuryAll medical clinics and emergency departmentsSoftball related sliding injuries39
(B) Surrogate indicators associated with injuries
    1. Observed behaviorObservers at selected times and placesChild car safety seats40
    2. Environmental changesSurvey of hazards or safety devicesHome smoke detectors41
    3. Policy changesMonitoring regulatory activitiesHome hot tap water temperatures42
    4. Self reported behaviorSurvey sample of individualsBicycle helmet use8
    5. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefsSurvey sample of individualsStudents' knowledge of safety practices19