Table 3

Comparison of drowning prevention variables among different datasets used for surveillance

Key variablesCDRDeath certificateNewspaper clippings
Victim characteristics
 Substance use+0+
 Chronic illness (mental, medical, seizure history)+00
Site characteristics
 Type of water+++
 Location setting (residential, park, etc.)+++
 Supervising person+0+
 Impairment (alcohol, drugs, etc.)+00
Prevention measures
 Pool barriers (fencing, gate, etc.)+00
 Pool alarm+00
 Life jacket use+00
 Rescue equipment+00
 Swimming ability+00
 Lifeguarded presence+0+
Determination of intent+00
Determination of preventability+00
CPS involvement+00
Primary cause of death+++
  • CDR, child death review; CPS, child protection services.

  • + = present; 0 = not present; ± = sometimes present.