Table 2

Haddon matrix applied to the problem of school violence by firearms

Host (students at school)Agent/vehicle (firearm and bullets)Physical environment (school)Social environment (school and community norms, policies, rules)
Pre-event (before teen uses weapon)Educate teens about the dangers of carrying guns to school Educate parents about dangers of allowing teens access to gunsTeach students to recognize and report student behaviors indicative of possible violent behaviorModify guns so they are only operable by the ownerInstall metal detectors at entrances to schools Eliminate storage places in schools (for example lockers) where guns might be keptAdopt school procedures/policies to notify authorities if a student is suspected of having a gun at schoolProhibit gun carrying on school groundsEnforce restrictions on the sale or transfer of handguns to teenagers
Event (when gun is taken out to be fired)Teach students to take cover when they see guns or hear gunfireReduce capacity of weapons to fire multiple rounds quicklyModify bullets to be less lethalInstall alarm systems to call law enforcement as soon as weapons are visibleHave law enforcement officers on duty at school to intervene during fightsDevelop safety plans to help students move to safety in event of violent episode
Post-event (after students are shot)Teach students first aid skillReduce the capacity of the gun to continue firingMake school grounds readily accessible to ambulancesEnsure well trained emergency medical personnel and access to trauma facilitiesProvide post-event counseling to students, staff, and families