Table 2

Safety agenda

Needs assessmentInterventionEvaluation
In car safety60% (range 27–68%) of children wear seat belts to and from eight primary schoolsInteractive education to all primary schoolchildren: in car safety leaflet given to all parentsSeat belt wearing increased to 72% recounted three and six months later
Safety outside schoolPublic meeting identified parking problems outside schools: infringements identified outside eight schools on six occasions“Parking here could cost a child its life” signs erected. Police advised on traffic control modification at school gatesSchools with traffic wardens showed improved parking; two schools revised vehicular access
Child pedestrian injuriesParent questionnaire to assess the number of children walking to school; 95% of 6 year olds, 92% of 9 year olds were taken to school by adult or older siblingNo intervention warranted
Fire safety in the home72% of 257 families had smoke alarms (79% of 168 control families)Fire safety education to all primary schoolchildren: 158 smoke alarms sold by local retailer in low cost schemeOne year later 80% of 213 families had smoke alarms (matched responses) (86% of 168 controls)
Cycle safety87% 5 year olds own bicycle; 40% own helmets (26% of controls). 90% of Penarth 9–11 year olds own bicycles (100% of control); 55% own helmets (controls 45%); 75% wear them (controls 27%); 100% aware of danger (89%, controls)Interactive cycle safety education to all primary schoolchildren. Safe cycle race and cycling proficiency rewardedNo significant increase in cycle helmet ownership/wearing or danger awareness
Home safety for those 5 and underHome safety audit: safety provision for 89 (54%) of 8 month olds, 168 (90%) of 5 year olds in Penarth; for 81 8 month olds and 81 5 year olds in control areaSafety advice given to parents in Penarth by health visitor, but not to the control group: five workshops for socially deprived families in Penarth Family CentreReassessment of home safety provision one year later for 40 Penarth children and 55 controls. Significant improvement in medicine security, curly flexes, smoke alarms and window locks, bicycle helmets. Control group: significant improvement in cycle helmet ownership, no change for smoke alarms or window locks
Playground safetyAll 19 playgrounds reviewed by local authority. Two playgrounds did not meet British safety standards criteriaParents and children empowered to work with the council to redesign two playgroundsAll 19 playgrounds met British safety standards one year later