Table 1

Study characteristics and methodological aspects of the 17 studies included in the review of injury patients (aged >15 years, all causes) treated at the emergency department and/or admitted to hospital and post-traumatic stress disorder

Study and countryStudy populationExclusion criteriaAssessment toolPTSD rates
Bryant et al29
Australia
N=1084 (1477)
Age 16–70
Hospitalised
Moderate or severe brain injury, psychotic or suicidal, non-Australian visitors, under police guard, non-English speakingCAPS3 months: 10%
12 months: 10%
Holbrook et al20
USA
n=824 (1048)
Age 18 or older
Hospitalised
Glasgow Coma Scale score at admission <12, and length of stay greater <24 h, no address in California, Arizona, Utah or Oregon, no telephone number; primary language spoken other than English or SpanishSCID6 months: 32%
Mason et al35
UK
N=653
Hospitalised
Inability to consent, inability to converse in English, non-accidental injury and acute psychiatric condition on interviewingIES-R3 months: 37%
Matthews et al36
Australia
N=69 (219)
Age 18–60
Hospitalised
Not residing within the metropolitan area, injury resulting from a suicide attempt, neurological injury (Glasgow Coma Score of 15)PCL8 months: 19%
Mellman et al26
USA
N=50 (83)
Hospitalised
Head injury, intoxication, lack of recall, and/or a role in perpetrating the violence, hospital stays shorter than 24 hCAPS, SCID6 weeks: 24%
Michaels et al37
USA
N=247
Age 18 or older
Hospitalised
Neurological injury, amputations, history of psychosis or self-inflicted injuries, mentally retarded, or in prisonMISS6 months: 41%
12 months: 38%
Micheals et al38
USA
N= 56 (126)
Hospitalised
Paralysing spinal injury, Glasgow Coma Scale score <15 within 24 h of admission or extubationMISS, IES5 months: 38%
O'Donnell et al6
Australia
n=337 (419)
Age 18–70
ED and hospitalised
Severe brain injury, self-harm, intravenous substance abuse, psychotic disorderCAPS3 months: 9%
12 months: 10%
Richmond et al39
USA
N=123 (228)
Age 18–80
Hospitalised
Self-inflicted injury, diagnosis of concurrent CNS injury, active major psychiatric syndrome preceding and unrelated to the injury, discharge to police custody, living arrangements preventing follow-up contact by telephoneIES1 week: 32%
12 weeks: 50%
Schnyder et al40
Switzerland
N=106 (135)
Age 18–70
Hospitalised
Severe head injury, serious somatic illness, treatment for mental disorder unrelated to the injury, injury resulting from a suicide attempt or a physical attackIES, CAPS2 weeks: 5%
1 year: 2%
Schnyder et al41
Switzerland
N=255 (386)
Age 18–65
Hospitalised
Glasgow Coma Scale score <9, unconsciousness >15 min, pathological findings in the cranial CT and suicide attemptCAPS6 months: 3%
Shalev et al11
Israel
n=211 (420)
Age 16–65
ED and hospitalised
Brain injury, burn injury, alcohol or drug abuse, past or present psychosis, life-threatening medical illnessIES, CAPS, MISS1 month: 30%
4 months: 18%
Shalev et al42
Israel
N=51 (72)
Age 18–60
Hospitalised
Head injury, burns or other severe injury, in a coma before or during emergency room admissionIES, SCID, MISS6 months: 26%
Turpin et al12
UK
n=142 (2818)
Age 16–65
ED and hospitalised
Non-English speakingPDS<2 weeks: 14%
10–12 weeks: 7%
24–26 weeks: 10%
Zatzick et al22
USA
N=101 (156)
Age 14–65
Hospitalised
Non-English speakingPCL12 months: 30%
Zatzick et al8
USA
N=2707 (5043)
Age 18–84
Hospitalised
65 years of age and a first-listed diagnosis of hip fracture, major burn, treatment delays in excess of 24 h, incarcerated at the time of injuryPCL12 months: 21%
Polinder et al14
The Netherlands
n=1781 (8564)
Age >15
ED and hospitalised
Non-Dutch speakingIES24 months: 4%
  • CAPS, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale; CNS, central nervous system; ED, emergency department; IES, Impact of Event Scale; IES-R, revised Impact of Event Scale; MISS, Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD; PCL, PTSD Checklist; PDS, Post-traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder; SCID, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV.