Table 3 Situation-related factors for swimmer and surfer drownings at Australian surf beaches from 1 July 2001 to 30 June 2005 (n = 129)
Candidate risk factor (source of data)Case count (%*)
In-water activity (NCIS/IRD)
    Swimming/wading95 (74)
    Riding surf craft20 (16)
    Snorkeling/diving14 (11)
Proximity of others in water (NCIS/IRD)
    In water nearby others70 (54)
    In water alone22 (17)
    Not recorded37 (29)
Rip current implicated in drowning (NCIS/IRD)
    Yes28 (22)
    Not indicated101 (78)
CPR administered (NCIS/IRD)
    Yes83 (64)
    No21 (16)
    Unable to determine25 (19)
  • *Errors in totals due to rounding.

  • CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; NCIS, National Coroners Information System; IRD, Incident Report Database.