Table 3 Results from helmet evaluation studies
Reference, yearMeasurementsResults
Rivara et al,7 1999Questionnaire/helmet and head shape measurements% correct* (self-reported excellent fit): 66.0 (63.5–68.3)% correct* (self-reported centre position): 85.0 (83.1–86.8)Fit of helmet:    Poor: OR = 1.96 (95% CI 1.10 to 3.75)    Excellent: 1.0 (reference)Position of helmet:    Posterior: OR = 1.52 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.26)    Centre: 1.0 (reference)Helmet came off in crash:    Yes: OR = 3.25 (95% CI 1.82 to 5.75)    No: 1.0 (reference)Head shape and helmet fit measurements:    Wider helmet width in children with head injuries (p = 0.05); greater difference in width (p = 0.049) and depth (p = 0.007) between helmet and head in younger children    Head-injured boys had poorer fitting helmets than non-head-injured boys
Thompson et al,15 1997Self-report vs expert evaluationDifference between expert (21%) and self-report (66%) rating of proper helmet fit
  • *In control (non-head-injured) group.