Table 2 Results from cross-sectional surveys and intervention studies by year of study
ReferenceYear publishedDeterminant/measurementsN (correct)N (total wearing helmet)% correct (95% CI)19911992
Finch et al141993Age, sexNot available*Not available*5–11 years    Male    Female12–17 years    Male    Female18+ years    Male    Female991009410099999998971009999
Age, road classNot available*Not available*5–11 years    A    NA12–17 years    A    NA18+ years    A    NA10099979299971009897989998
Age, locationNot available*Not available*5–11 years    Footpath    Road12–17 years    Footpath    Road18+ years    Footpath    Road999894969699999797989799
Rowe et al31995N/A489849.0 (39.3 to 58.8)
Harlos et al111999Age50755990.7 (88.0 to 92.8)
Twomey et al82001Adult vs children9220046 (39.2 to 52.9)
Forjuoh et al92002N/A64†85†75.3 (65.1 to 83.3)
Nykolyshyn et al12003N/A1568209075.0 (73.1 to 76.8)
Parkinson et al102003Questionnaire and helmet fit assessment204784.2 (2.7 to 6.4) Self-report of helmet use as “almost/always”: 73%
Hall et al132004Intervention: peer-led classroom curriculum3311016Pre-intervention: 32.6 (29.8 to 35.5)
Van Houten et al162007Intervention: helmet-use educational programmeNot available*Not available*Pre-intervention‡    Bonita Springs: 9%    Riviera: 64%    Meadowlark: 30%Post-intervention‡    Bonita Springs: 40%    Riviera: 80%    Meadowlark: 78%
  • *Absolute numbers for proportions not available from report precluding confidence interval calculations.

  • †Estimated based on % correct and total number from authors’ data.

  • ‡Correct helmet percentages calculated by “dividing the number of children wearing a helmet correctly by the total number of children bicycling”.16 Absolute numbers not provided in article precluding confidence interval calculations.

  • A, arterial zones; NA, non-arterial zones; N/A, not applicable.