Table 2

 Descriptive statistics for count and continuous variables

*VFC denotes violent and firearm related crime.
†Handguns manufactured by 7 companies—Bryco Arms/Jennings Firearms, Davis Industries, High Point Firearms, Lorcin Engineering, Phoenix Arms, Raven Arms, Sundance Industries—whose handguns all had suggested retail prices of approximately $150 or less; almost no such handguns were manufactured by other companies during the study period.
‡Results are for 398 retailers with sales during one or more of the years 1997–2000, during which gun show sales were identified.
§Sales to police agencies or individuals who were exempt, due to police employment, from California’s required basic firearms safety course.
¶Sales of more than one handgun in a single transaction.
**The time between the dates of a gun’s sale and its recovery by police, in years. Results are for the 351 retailers with VFC handguns.
††Measured at the county level.
‡‡All licensees with handgun sales during the study period, regardless of sales volume.
§§An arrest rate. Examples: unlawful possession of a weapon on the person, in a vehicle, or in a public place (charged as a felony); unlawful possession of weapon in public building; possession of short-barreled shotgun or rifle; possession of firearm by felon; carrying firearm with intent to commit felony; obliterating firearm serial number.
¶¶An arrest rate. Examples: unlawful possession of a weapon on the person, in a vehicle, or in a public place (charged as a misdemeanor); possession of weapon with intent to assault; knowingly filing false firearm purchase application; selling firearms without a license; possession of unregistered assault weapon; sale of ammunition to a minor.
IQR, interquartile range.
Variables measured at the retailer level
    VFC handgun traces*, n31–80–184
    Total handgun traces, n52–150–336
    VFC traces per 1000 gun years of exposure0.50.2–0.90.0–8.8
    Total traces per 1000 gun years of exposure1.10.6–2.00.0–14.2
    Handgun sales, n945557–2002108–24035
    Gun years of exposure, n48692862–10272566–129906
    Years with sales, n54–51–5
    Gun years from sales of inexpensive handguns, %†2.61.0–6.90.0–75.7
    Gun years from sales at gun shows, %‡0.20.0–1.10.0–86.9
    Gun years from police sales, %§5.63.7–8.20.2–88.4
    Gun years from sales of multiple guns, %¶9.47.0–12.30.0–58.8
    Denials, % (of sales + denials)1.10.6–1.50.0–5.4
    Median time to crime for VFC handguns, y**2.41.8–3.30.1–7.2
    Median age of purchasers, y4139–4324–53
    Male purchasers, %93.391.5–94.679.6–99.2
Federal firearm licensees per 100 000 persons††,‡‡8.14.5–14.30.3–58.3
Crime rates per 100 000 persons††
    Aggravated assault345.2297.9–516.8129.3–607.8
    Felony weapons offenses§§46.244.5–59.220.6–113.5
    Misdemeanor weapons offenses¶¶12.611.2–18.73.7–41.4
    Black population, %5.71.9–9.80.3–14.9
    Latino population, %30.819.0–44.05.5–72.2
    Males ages 20–29, as % of males ages 40–44187165–20899–284
    Unemployed people, % (of people ages ⩾16)4.43.4–5.01.9–7.8
    Households headed by single females, %12.210.9–14.73.9–17.1
    Median household income, × $100042.442.1–54.127.5–74.3
    Households per 10000 persons32923247–35662651–4322