Table 1

 Goals for Driver Education framework7

Hierarchical level of behaviorEssential contents (examples)
Knowledge and skillsRisk increasing factorsSelf-evaluation
BAC, blood alcohol content.
Goals for life and skills for living (general)Knowledge about/control over how life goals and personal tendencies affect driving behavior • lifestyle/life situation • group normsRisky tendencies • acceptance if risks • self-enhancement through driving • high level of sensation seeking • complying with social pressureSelf-evaluation/awareness of • personal skills for impulse control • risky tendencies • safety negative motives
• motives• use of alcohol/drugs• personal risky habits
• self-control, other characteristics• values, attituted towards society• etc
• personal values• etc
• etc
Goals and context of driving (trip related)Knowledge and skills concerningRisks connected withSelf-evaluation/awareness of
• effects of trip goals on driving• driver’s condition (mood, BAC, etc)• personal planning skills
• planning and choosing routes• purpose of driving• typical goals of driving
• evaluation of social pressure in car• driving environment (rural/urban)• typical risky driving motives
• evaluation of necessity of trip• social context and company• etc
• etc• extra motives (competing etc)
• etc
Mastery of traffic situationsKnowledge and skills concerningRisks caused bySelf-evaluation/awareness of
• traffic rules • observation/selection of signals• wrong expectations • risk increasing driving style (eg aggressive)• strong and weak points of basic traffic skills
• anticipation of course of situations• unsuitable speed adjustment• personal driving style
• speed adjustment• vulnerable road users• personal safety margins
• communication • driving path• not obeying rules/unpredictable behavior • information overload• strong and weak points for hazard situations
• driving order• difficult conditions (darkness etc)• realistic self-evaluation
• distance to others/safety margins• insufficient automatism/skills• etc
• etc• etc
Vehicle maneuveringKnowledge and skills concerningRisks connected withAwareness of
• control of direction and position • tyre grip and friction• Insufficient automatism/skills • Unsuitable spped adjustment• strong and weak points of basic maneuvering skills
• vehicle properties • physical phenomena• difficult conditions (low friction etc) • etc• strong and weak points of skills for hazard situations
• etc• realistic self-evaluation
• etc