Table 3

 Contextual, structural, and process characteristics of the programs

ProgramCharacteristics of the intervention community (population)Study period (duration)Goals/objectivesTargeted injury categoriesInterventions
LidköpingLidköping (36000) is situated in Skaraborg County, Sweden. This is a mainly agricultural and manufacturing region; 40% of the area is arable land (compared to 8% for Sweden as a whole)1984–91 (7 years)To reduce injury incidenceAll injuries among children and the elderlyActive: information, training. Passive: inventory of hazards, environmental improvements. Emphasis on passive intervention
MotalaMotala (41000) is situated in Östergötland County, Sweden. 82% of the population live in the central and residential areas and the remainder in surrounding rural districts. Manufacturing, trade, and public administration are the main occupations, with 77% of the gainfully employed working within these fields. The age and gender mix is close to the national average. The proportion of adults with more than an elementary school education is 5% below the national average (60%)1983–89 (6 years)To reduce injury incidence (goal: reduction by 25% until 2000)All injuries among children, teenagers, and the elderly, traffic injuries, sports and recreation injuries, and workplace injuriesActive: education, information. Passive: subsidising of safety materials, distribution of safety materials to households, inventory of hazards, environmental improvements. Emphasis on passive intervention
FalunFalun (55000) is situated in Dalarna County, Sweden. Falun is the cultural centre in the Dalarna region as well as a centre for higher education1989–94 (5 years)To reduce injury incidenceAll injuries among children and the elderly, traffic injuries, school injuries, and sports injuriesActive: education, information, training. Passive: environmental improvements. Emphasis on active intervention
HarstadHarstad (22000) is a city located 250 kilometres north of the Arctic Circle, Norway1985–93 (8 years)To reduce injury incidence for target groupsFalls, burns in young children and traffic injuries among young automobile drivers, motorcyclist, automobile passengers, child pedestrians, and child and early adolescent cyclistActive: information. Passive: distribution of safety materials to households, inspections of safety features (for example, checks on vehicles), influencing policy and legislation decisions. Emphasis on passive intervention
FalköpingFalköping (32000) is situated in Skaraborg County,Sweden. See Lidköping for further details1978–91 (13 years)To reduce injury incidence and increase public knowledge and awareness of injury risksAll injuries, with emphasis on injuries among children and the elderly, traffic injuries, and home injuriesActive: education, information. Passive: subsidising of safety materials, environmental improvements, inventory of hazards (for traffic planning). Emphasis on passive intervention
SCIPPNine Massachusetts cities and towns (139000), USA. No information provided on intervention area characteristics1980–82 (2 years)To reduce injury incidence in the targeted categoriesBurns, falls in the home, motor vehicle occupant injuries, poisonings, and suffocations among children ages 0–5 yearsActive: education, information, training. Passive: inventory of hazards (home inspections). Emphasis on passive intervention
Safe BlockUnknown number of census tracts (902 homes) selected from nine census tracts (17000) in western Philadelphia, USA. The intervention area is an urban community with a predominantly (97.2%) African-American and poor population1987–88 (1 year)To improve injury prevention knowledge, reduce hazards in the home, and reduce injury incidenceAll injuries, with emphasis on home injuries, unintentional injuries, and violenceActive: education, information. Passive: inspection of safety in homes, environmental improvements
Safe KidsCentral Harlem health district (no population figure provided) is a disadvantaged community in New York City, USA, with a predominantly African-American population. In 1990, 39.5% of Central Harlem residents lived below the poverty level (compared with 19.3% of city residents as a whole)1988–91 (3 years)To reduce incidence of severe injuriesTraffic accidents, assaults, firearm related injuries, and outdoor falls of children ages 5–16Active: education, information, leisure activities. Passive: environmental improvements, distribution of safety materials to households
WaitakereWaitakere (156,000) is the sixth largest city in New Zealand. A large urban multicultural community, it lies in the western part of the greater Auckland area, where nearly one in three New Zealanders live. One third of Waitakere’s population is under 20 years and nearly half below the age of 30 years. Waitakere is 67% Pakeha/European, 14% Maori (indigenous people of New Zealand), 11% Pacific people, 7% Asian, and 1% other1995–97 (2 years)To reduce injury incidenceAll injuries, all ages, with emphasis on injuries among Maori and Pacific (ethnic population groups), injuries among children, young people, and the elderly, alcohol related injuries, and road injuriesActive: education, information, training. Passive: hazard reduction, environmental improvements
NaxosNaxos is a small town (no exact population figure provided for the town) on the island of Naxos (14000), Greece1993–95 (20 months)To reduce injury incidenceAll injuries, all ages, with special emphasis on home injuries among the young and the elderlyActive: education, information, training. Passive: inspection of safety in homes, environmental improvements
Safe LivingShire of Bulla (32000) is an outer metropolitan area of Melbourne, Australia1991–96 (5 years)To increase public awareness of injury prevention and create a “safer community” environment, reduce the incidence and severity of injuries, reduce hazards, and institutionalise the programAll injuries, all ages, with emphasis on injuries among children and the elderly, home injuries, school injuries, sports injuries, and road injuriesActive: education, information, training. Passive: environmental improvements, distribution of safety materials to households
Five-cityEsbjerg, Frederikssund, Glostrup, Ledöje-Smörum, Nörhald, Denmark (740000). The age and gender mix is close to the national average. Other sociodemographic characteristics are also similar to the national average.1990–92 (2 years)To reduce injury incidence and injury severity.27 injury categories, covering most ages and environmentsActive: education, information, leisure activities, training. Passive: environmental improvements, inventory of hazards, distribution of safety materials to households. Emphasis on active intervention.
VaeröyVaeröy (1100) is a small island off the coast, located just north of the Arctic Circle, approximately 50 miles from the mainland of Norway. Coastal fishing is the basis for existence in the community; 57% of the adult men are fishermen or work in fish processing1981–83 (2 years)To reduce injury incidence and injury severityAll injuriesPrimarily information (active)
CICPIHS17 service units across the USA. The intervention area was a cultural community, rather than a geographical community, as the intervention was aimed exclusively at 570000 Native Americans in the USA1982–84 (2 years)To reduce injury incidence and injury severityAll injuries among Native AmericansActive: training to avoid or to treat specific injuries. Passive: provision of safety materials
Latrobe ValleyLatrobe Valley (76000) is a highly urbanised regional area, with 88% living in three major towns, Australia1992–95 (3 years)To increase public awareness of prevention measures, reduce hazards, reduce the incidence and severity of injuriesHome injuries, sports injuries, playground injuries, and alcohol misuse among young peopleActive: education, information. Passive: environmental improvements, distribution of safety materials to households
IllawaraShellharbour (45000) of the Illawara area is about 80 kilometres south of Sydney, Australia. Shellharbour is a geographical but not a cultural unity. There is a high level (20%) of migrant families whose first language is not English and a corresponding range of social and cultural values1986–91 (5 years)To reduce injury incidence (goal: reduction by 10 per cent for certain injury categories within 18 months), reduce injury severity, and reduce hazardsAll injuries, with emphasis on children ages 0–14, home (backyard) injuries, and bicycle related injuriesActive: information. Passive: environmental improvements