Table 5

Areas for further research or action to decrease the risk of fatal injury in relation to alcohol and recreational aquatic activities

Proposed actionReferences
Developing a better understanding about the epidemiology of boating and/or non-boating, alcohol related drowning incidents, including better measures of the association between alcohol and drowning10, 21, 31, 32
Obtaining more information on drownings involving particular racial/ethnic groups and women3
Obtaining information on the possible role of alcohol intake in persons supervising children under 6 years of age who drown37
Obtaining more information on drownings through linkage of health, administrative, and risk data sources3
Determining the effectiveness and acceptability of random sobriety checks for boat operators20
Determining an appropriate permissible blood alcohol concentration or the need for a “zero tolerance” approach regarding alcohol use and boating20
Measuring the impact of laws already in place prohibiting boating while intoxicated32
Examining the feasibility of controls to limit alcohol consumption by swimmers, especially those aged between 25 and 40 years, and males between 20 and 40 years33
Developing (national) guidelines for the best way to obtain and record information on blood alcohol level in drowning deaths29
Ensuring that coroners determine the blood alcohol level for all persons (10 years or older) who drown29, 65