Table 4

Proposed preventive actions to decrease the risk of fatal injury in relation to alcohol and recreational aquatic activities

Proposed actionReferences
Public service announcements by government agencies and community based organisations warning about the dangers of alcohol use in association with water recreation, and tailoring such messages to swimming, boating, and/or fishing5, 24, 34, 43
Eliminating or modifying advertisements that encourage the use of alcohol during boating activities5, 24, 34
Restricting the sale of alcoholic beverages at aquatic facilities5, 24, 54
Passage and enforcement of legislation restricting alcohol consumption during water recreation activities2, 5, 24, 33, 40, 44
Introduction of stiffer penalties for operating recreational boats under the influence of alcohol51
Making licencee/server liability apply to drowning61
Limiting the consumption of alcohol by anyone engaged in any form of activity related to water12, 41, 49, 50, 54, 56
Public education on the risks of drowning if alcohol is consumed while involved in aquatic activities2, 3, 11, 20, 21, 23, 26, 33, 35, 36, 39, 40, 43, 50, 53, 57, 59–61
Public education aimed at changing public acceptance of drinking while involved in aquatic activities10, 52
Public education of the potential benefits of alcohol control policies55
Including information on the risks of alcohol use in all training for boaters25, 27, 44
Focusing on all boat occupants, not just the operators2, 11, 20, 26, 28, 40, 41, 43
Targeting adult males20, 33, 43
Using a standardised sobriety test33, 58