Table 3

Published estimates of risk or relative risk of fatal injury in relation to recreational aquatic activities

PopulationRisk measureLevelRisk95% CI
CI, confidence interval; RR, relative risk.
All accidental “recreational boating deaths” occurring in Maryland and North Carolina in the United States from 1990–98, inclusive; Smith et al, 200128RR of fatal injury in relation to recreational boating0.01 g/100 ml1.31.2 to 1.4
0.05 g/100 ml3.72.8 to 4.7
0.10 g/100 ml10.46.9 to 15.7
0.25 g/100 ml52.425.9 to 106.1
Boating fatalities in California (includes non-recreational activities); Mengert et al, 199245RR of drowningMore than zero2.9
0.10 g/100 ml or greater10.6
Drowning deaths (includes non-recreational activities); Smith and Houser, 199446RR of drowning>Zero alcohol4.61.6 to 13.1
>0.10 g/100 ml31.85.8 to 176
Recreational boating deaths in Ohio; Molberg et al, 199344Proportion related to alcoholAlcohol “contributed”7%–21%
Alcohol “caused”7%
All recreational boating deaths in the United States; US Coast Guard, 200142Proportion related to alcoholAlcohol “involved”31%
Alcohol “caused”14%