Table 3

 Risk factors for lower limb fracture: relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI)

CasesControls
Diagnoses*No%No%RR†95% CI
*Diagnosis recorded at any time before index date (except for road collisions, which were recorded within 90 days before index date).
†Relative risk estimates are conditional on the matching factors (age, sex, general practice, index date, and duration of follow up in GPRD before index date) and adjusted for all other risk factors.
‡Any prescription for drug in therapeutic class recorded within 30 days before index date.
¶Reference: non-smokers.
§Body mass index (kg/m2); reference: BMI <24.
    Osteoporosis7012.17131.11.91.7 to 2.2
    Parkinsonism3581.13470.51.91.6 to 2.2
    Alcoholism8502.68801.41.81.7 to 2.0
    Cataract11863.621173.21.11.0 to 1.2
    Dementia6091.95330.82.32.0 to 2.6
    Epilepsy5821.86140.91.81.6 to 2.0
    Cancer9733.017142.61.11.0 to 1.2
    Obesity6872.111581.81.11.0 to 1.3
    Rheumatoid arthritis3891.25240.81.41.2 to 1.6
    Osteoarthritis346310.661949.51.11.1 to 1.2
    Road collision1920.6590.16.34.7 to 8.5
Drugs‡
    Corticosteroids4161.35910.91.31.1 to 1.5
    Antipsychotics4911.55400.81.41.2 to 1.6
    Antidepressants12633.917102.61.31.2 to 1.4
    Hypnotics/sedatives14784.523063.51.11.0 to 1.2
Other characteristics
    Smoker¶457613.9761111.71.21.2 to 1.3
    Ex-smoker¶11793.621663.31.11.0 to 1.2
    Smoking unknown¶1662750.73428952.50.90.9 to 1.0
    BMI 24–28§460014.0908513.91.01.0 to 1.1
    BMI >28§32429.960609.31.11.0 to 1.1
    BMI unknown§1821755.53691856.51.01.0 to 1.1