Table 3

 Rates (per 100 000 person-years) and change in rates, for all deaths, deaths attributed to each risk factor, and other deaths not attributed to each risk factor.*

Risk factorRates
1982†2001†Difference‡Change (%)§95% CI
*Not all people were considered exposed to all risk factors. For example, only vehicle occupants (not motorcyclists) were considered to be at risk for not wearing a seat belt and only motorcycle riders were considered to be potential wearers of motorcycle helmets. Death rates attributed to each risk factor alone sum to more than rates attributed to all five risk factors, as some deaths can be attributed to more than one factor.
†Rates for 1982 and 2001 are from the fitted models.
‡Rate difference  =  2001 rate minus 1982 rate.
§Rate change  =  (2001 rate minus 1982 rate)/(1982 rate).
    All deaths19.5714.39−5.18−26−30 to −23
    Attributed deaths10.274.88−5.39−53−56 to −49
    Other deaths9.529.67+0.16+2−6 to +9
Not wearing a seat belt
    All deaths13.6211.53−2.10−15−20 to −11
    Attributed deaths7.053.57−3.48−49−52 to −47
    Other deaths6.778.11+1.34+20+9 to +32
No air bag
    All deaths12.1110.04−2.07−17−22 to −12
    Attributed deaths0.670.56−0.11−17−38 to +12
    Other deaths11.449.48−1.95−17−21 to −13
No motorcycle helmet
    All deaths1.990.74−1.24−63−72 to −51
    Attributed deaths0.430.11−0.32−74−81 to −63
    Other deaths1.550.63−0.93−60−69 to −47
No bicycle helmet
    All deaths0.400.26−0.14−35−40 to −30
    Attributed deaths0.260.16−0.10−39−45 to −33
    Other deaths0.140.10−0.04−28−32 to −23
All five risk factors
    All deaths19.5714.39−5.18−26−30 to −23
    Attributed deaths14.227.36−6.85−48−51 to −45
    Other deaths5.647.26+1.62+29+18 to +41