Table 2

 Change in risk factor prevalence: percent of the dead exposed to each of five risk factors.* Estimates for 1982 and 2001 are from a line fitted to the data for all years.†

Risk factorPrevalence in 1982 (%)Prevalence in 2001 (%)Difference (%)95% CI for difference (%)
*Only some dead people were considered to be at risk for some factors: for example, only vehicle occupants (not motorcyclists) were considered at risk for not wearing a seat belt and only motorcycle riders were considered at risk for not wearing a motorcycle helmet.
†Change difference  =  final year prevalence minus first year prevalence. Change estimate restricted to 1992–2001 for air bags and 1994–2001 for bicycle helmets.
‡Failure to wear a bicycle helmet assumed to be 100% before 1994.
Alcohol5636−20−20 to −19
No seat belt9455−39−40 to −39
No air bag10053−48−48 to −47
No motorcycle helmet6044−16−18 to −15
No bicycle helmet‡10094−4−6 to −3