Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Global, regional and national burdens of occupational injuries, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
  1. Jianqiang Lai,
  2. Xianmin Li,
  3. Wei Liu,
  4. Qian Liufu,
  5. Chengfan Zhong
  1. Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Gaozhou People's Hospital, Gaozhou, China
  1. Correspondence to Dr Jianqiang Lai, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The People's Hospital of Gaozhou, Gaozhou 525200, Guangdong, China; 13929736642{at}; Professor Chengfan Zhong, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Gaozhou People's Hospital, Gaozhou 525200, China; 469598003{at}


Objectives Occupational injuries pose a significant challenge to global health and development. This study aimed to quantify the international and regional burdens of occupational injuries from 1990 to 2019, stratified by specific causes.

Methods We analysed global trends in deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) and age-standardised DALY rates (ASDR) related to occupational injuries. Specific injuries, including animal contact, drowning, mechanical forces, falls, fire, heat, hot substances, foreign bodies, poisoning and road injuries, were evaluated. Age-stratified and regional analyses were also performed.

Results Globally, the number of deaths, DALYs, ASMR and ASDR related to occupational injuries declined from 1990 to 2019. The middle Socio-demographic Index (SDI) region exhibited the highest burden, whereas the high SDI region showed the least burden. China and India had the highest occupational injury-related death rates in 2019. Males, particularly those aged 25–44 years, were found to be more vulnerable. Road injuries were the leading cause of death in all age groups. Compared with 1990, mortality numbers and rates decreased significantly by 2019, with the highest burdens experienced in East Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia.

Conclusion The global decline in occupational injuries is promising; however, certain regions and demographics remain disproportionately affected. Targeted interventions in high-burden areas are crucial to further reduce the impact of occupational injuries.

  • public health
  • occupational injury
  • burden of disease

Data availability statement

Data are available in a public, open access repository. Online datasets can be found here:

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

Data availability statement

Data are available in a public, open access repository. Online datasets can be found here:

View Full Text


  • Contributors JL and CZ planned the study. WL and QL collected, analysed and interpreted the data. JL and XL wrote the first draft, which was critically revised by CZ. Both authors approved the final manuscript. JL assumes all responsibility for research endeavors.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Map disclaimer The inclusion of any map (including the depiction of any boundaries therein), or of any geographic or locational reference, does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of BMJ concerning the legal status of any country, territory, jurisdiction or area or of its authorities. Any such expression remains solely that of the relevant source and is not endorsed by BMJ. Maps are provided without any warranty of any kind, either express or implied.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.