Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Understanding the challenges of injury in providing sport programmes for physically inactive women: concept mapping insights from programme deliverers
  1. Kiera Staley1,2,
  2. Alex Donaldson1,2,
  3. Andrea B Mosler3,4,
  4. Paul O'Halloran1,5,
  5. Emma Seal6,
  6. Adrienne Forsyth3,7,
  7. Matthew Nicholson1,8,
  8. Kirsty Forsdike1,2,
  9. Andrea Maree Bruder3,4
  1. 1Centre for Sport and Social Impact, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  2. 2La Trobe Business School, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  3. 3School of Allied Health, Human Services and Sport, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  4. 4La Trobe Sport and Exercise Medicine Research Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  5. 5School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  6. 6School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  7. 7School of Behavioural and Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia
  8. 8Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia
  1. Correspondence to Kiera Staley, Centre for Sport and Social Impact, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; k.staley{at}


Objectives Injury/poor health is an important barrier to women’s participation in sport and physical activity. This study aimed to identify perceived challenges sport programme deliverers face when supporting physically inactive women to prevent/manage injury.

Methods Sport programme deliverers, targeting physically inactive women in Victoria, participated in concept mapping to brainstorm, sort and rate (impact on their ability to prevent/manage injury, frequency of and difficulty to overcome the challenge on a 1 (low)–5 (high) scale) the challenges faced. Analysis included multidimensional scaling, hierarchical cluster analysis and descriptive statistics (eg, mean ratings).

Results Twenty-five deliverers brainstormed 82 injury prevention/management-related challenges. An eight cluster map was considered the most appropriate representation of the participants’ sorting data (mean cluster impact, frequency and difficulty to overcome rating (1–5)): time constraints (3.42, 3.69, 3.12); perceived competence in injury prevention/management (3.36, 3.50, 3.27); navigating participant perceptions and knowledge (3.35, 3.74, 3.49); information and responsibility (3.32, 3.50, 3.26); session planning and structure (3.25, 3.45, 3.07); participant engagement (3.13, 3.47, 3.08); responding to individual needs (3.07, 3.42, 2.92) and access to injury management resources (2.87, 3.25, 3.17).

Conclusion Limited time created injury prevention/management challenges for programme deliverers when planning and modifying sport programmes for physically inactive women. Injury prevention/management should be integrated into programme design and delivery principles. Programme deliverers need education/training and access to injury prevention/management resources (eg, activity modification) and engagement/communication strategies tailored for physically inactive women. Public health funders, coaching course accreditors, programme designers and deliverers can use these insights to develop strategies to minimise injury risk and effect systemic change in sport programme delivery.

  • Public Health
  • Recreation / Sports
  • Haddon Matrix
  • Gender

Data availability statement

All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as online supplemental information.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

Data availability statement

All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as online supplemental information.

View Full Text


  • Twitter @AlexDonaldson13, @AndreaBMosler, @EmmaSeal2, @AndreaBruder

  • Contributors KS, AD, ABM, ES, AF, PO'H and AMB designed the study; KS, AD, ABM, MN and AMB developed the study focus prompt and three statement rating questions; KS managed the concept mapping process; KS, AD, ABM, AF, ES and AMB synthesised and edited the statements; KS, AD, ABM, ES, AF, PO'H, KF and AMB agreed on the eight-cluster map; and KS, AD, ABM, MN, PO'H and AMB interpreted the maps. KS led the drafting of the manuscript, while all authors contributed to its drafting, revising and editing. The contents of the manuscript received final approval from all authors, who collectively took responsibility for the work’s integrity throughout its conception and publication. KS is acting as guarantor for this manuscript.

  • Funding This study was funded by La Trobe University, School of Allied Health, Human Services and Sport (Special Strategic Grant (2020)).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.